Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (2023)


Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (1)

The Nile at sunset.

Nameno buzzing (Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (2)h5839,possibly short form ofChapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (3)H534,"God is pleasure"; see son and descendant of (1 Chronicles 4:15).

Naamah (Persona)nay'uh-muh (Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (4)H5841,possibly "grace"). (1) Daughter, sister, and descendant of (Genesis 4:22). She is the only named daughter in the line of Cain or (Genesis 4:17-5:32).

(2) Ammonite wife and mother of (1 Kings 14:21, 31; 2 Chronicles 12:13). See A Supplement to the Greek Text of 1 Kings. 12:24 identifies Naamah as the daughter of the son of(Oh good),the king of the Ammonites (cf. 2 Sam. 10:1-2), but there is no way to confirm this tradition, which would indicate that Solomon's marriage was politically motivated. It is commonly assumed that Naamah was one of the many foreign wives Solomon married when his heart turned away from God (cf. 1 Kings 11:1-8); However, Rehoboam's age indicates that this marriage took place when Solomon was relatively young, and some have speculated that it was a diplomatic compromise on Rehoboam's part following Rehoboam's introduction of "heights, sacred stones, and Asherah poles" and "even harlots of the sanctuary." . (14:23-24).


Naamah (Plaza)nay'uh-muh (Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (5)h5842,possibly "grace"). A city in the assigned to the tribe (Joshua 15:41). It was apparently nearby, but its exact location is unknown. Proposals included modern Na


Naamannay'uh-muhn (Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (6)h5845,"Compassion"; not jewishChapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (7)H5844,"naamite" or "naamite"; the name is attested as a proper name in Ras Shamra administrative texts [see and as an epithet of royal personages]. (1) Listed among the "sons" of Genesis 46:21, but elsewhere more specifically identified as the son and therefore grandson of Benjamin (Numbers 26:40; 1 Chron. 8:4, 7 [Hebrew syntax in vv 6-7 it is ambiguous]). He became the eponymous ancestor of the Naamites (Numbers 26:40; NJPS, "Naamanites").

(2) The Aramaic general who was healed of a skin disease by (2 Kings 5). Prior to this incident, the king of Probably II (Josh. Ant. 18.15.5) had attributed Naaman's victories to his military genius (v. 1). The expression "highly esteemed" (NIV) is literally "was lifted up face to face" and refers to the gesture of the king extending his scepter and touching the face of the supplicant who was prostrate before him and raising his face. (cf. Est 8, 3-4). When the king referred to him as “my servant” (2 Kings 5:6), he meant that he was a high official who could, but need not, be in his feudal service. In any case, Naaman was a "brave soldier" who suffered from "leprosy" (see below). Despite the young woman's claim that the prophet could heal the leper (verse 4), the king had no respect for the prophet, but in keeping with the ancient conception of the king as a channel of divine blessing, he made the request directly. to the king of Israel, who also ignored the prophet.

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Elisha ordered Naaman to wash in the Jordan to be healed of his leprosy.

Naaman did not know that Yahweh was using him (cf. v. 1), and he was a proud man: (1) he entered the house with all the pomp of his state (v. 9); (2) "to me" (v. 11) he is in an emphatic position, which implies "to a person like me"; (3) The phrase "would certainly come out" (v. 11, making the Hebrew infinitive construction absolute) also emphasizes the fact that Naaman felt it was the duty of Elisha, whom he considered his social inferior, to come out of him. ; (4) he refused to carry out a plan that did not agree with his own formulation (verses 11-12).

Yahweh used various agents to turn Naaman from a proud and self-sufficient man into a believer (v. 15), humble (v. 18, "your servant"), and reverent man (v. 18), Yahweh's attributes, desires for everyone, including the ones he uses to discipline his people. First, Yahweh plagued him with a skin disease. Leprosy here is not the same as modern "leprosy" (see In Any Case, It Wasn't This Species That Shut You Out of Society. J. A. Graymi II reyes,2nd ed. [1970], 452-58) concluded: "Naaman's illness must have been what Herodotus callsLegalin contrast withLeprosy."Only God could cure this disease (v. 7). Second, Yahweh used believing servants of much lower social status (the captive Israelite girl, v. 2, and Naaman's own servant, v. 13). Finally, he used the man of God, who recognized his position of authority under God (verse 10), the need for childlike faith in God's Word (verses 11–14), and the truth that God's salvation is a free gift (vv 15-16). Naaman's healing was pointed to by the Lord Jesus as an example of God's merciful care for non-Israelites (Luke 4:27).


masksnay'uh-muh-that (Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (9)h5847,"of Naamah"). Descriptive title of one of the three friends (Job 2:11; 11:1; 20:1; 42:9). Obviously it refers to his place of origin. The city of Judea (Joshua 15:41) is almost certainly not in sight. Since the other two friends appear to be from the Arabian desert, the term Naamtite could refer to a place like Jebel in the northwest or a Sabean clan in southern Arabia (on the latter see 4:968).

picked upnay'uh-com. See #1.

accept (Persona)nay'uh-ruh (Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (10)H5856,"young woman"). One of the two wives of one of his descendants bore him four sons (1 Chronicles 4:5-6).

accept, Naaram (Plaza)nay'uh-ruh, -ruhn (Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (11)h5857,"Water Mill"; besides that, besides moreChapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (12)A pueblo that figures as part of the southeastern frontier of the tribu de (Joshua 16:7 [KJV, "Naarath"]; called Naaran in 1 Chronicles 7:28). It is mentioned between ATAROTH y. A note dated 17.13. water supply . 136.24) informs that the cityNoorathit was 5 Roman miles (about 4.5 miles) from Jericho. So, N. Glueckno Leste Palestine,4 vols. [1934-51], 4:412-13) identified Naarah with Khirbet. However, most scholars prefer Tell el-Jisr, just below the Duq springs and at the foot of the Judean Hills, less than 2 miles away. NOT from Jericho. These springs are called "the waters of Jericho," which lie east of the border (Joshua 16:1). Other nearby sites have been suggested (cf. Z. Kallai,Historic Geography Von a The Bible[1986], 163-66; see alsonah,3:1075-76).


forno buzzing (Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (13)H5858,possibly short form ofChapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (14), "young servant] of the Lord"). son of Ezbai listed among the mighty warriors (1 Chronicles 11:37); in the parallel passage he is called "Paarai the referee" (2 Sam. 23:35). See the discussion below

Naaramnay'uh-ruhn. ver

Naratnay'uh-ruhth. KJV-Form von

Nationnay'uh-shon. KJV alternate form of (Exod. 6:23 only).

breast-feedingchildless. KJV NT form of (Matthew 1:4; Luke 3:32).

Suspendednay'uh-thuhs (Naaθoς). One of Addi's descendants who agreed to keep out his foreign wives in the period of (1 Esdras 9:31). The name does not appear in the parallel, although some think it may correspond to Adna (Ezra 10:30). .

Marina-no'buhl (Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (15)h5573,"fool", possibly from folk etymology; the name may originally come from a root meaning "noble"). A wealthy descendant who lived about 8 miles away. IF from (1 Sam. 25:2-3). He had 3,000 sheep and 1,000 goats which he herded nearby (now Kirmil, N of Maon). He is described as "grumpy and mean" (verse 3). a fugitive had been living in the neighborhood for some time when the festive season of Nabal's sheep shearing arrived. David had protected Nabal's herds from marauding Bedouin (vv. 15-16) and now sent ten of his men to wish Nabal well, reminding him of his service and demanding a gift in return.

Nabal showed his ungrateful character not only by refusing the reasonable request, but also by returning insulting comments, regarding David as a vagabond who, like many others at that time, had deceived his master. Immediately, David and 400 men prepared to take revenge. However, Nabal's wife, who is described as "intelligent and beautiful" (verse 3), quickly sought out David to make amends. She brought a generous gift of food that David and her men needed, and she humbly apologized for her husband's behavior and begged David not to retaliate. David agreed. When Abigail later told her husband that she had narrowly escaped, her "heart failed him" (verse 37), and ten days later she died. So David made Abigail one of his wives. (See J.D. Levenson inCBQ40 [1978]: 11-28.)


he is collecting(Nassaριaς). One of the prominent men who were present when the law was read in the great assembly (1 Ezra 9:44 [KJV, "Nabarias"]; name not found in parallel, Neh. 8:4).

clearnab'uh-ri'uhs. RV Rev. A way of

Nabataeannab'uh-tee'uhnz (Naßaτaîoι). Also Nabateans. Although this name does not appear in either the OT or the NT, the Nabateans were an influential Aramaic-speaking people living in the northwest around the fourth century BCE. was active v. at the beginning of the 2nd century BC. AD Some earlier scholars tried to identify the Nabataeans (stem with the name of the firstborn,h5568,general 25:13 et al.) and with the Nabayat mentioned in the Assyrian chronicles, but shown by Jean Starcky

Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (16)

Aerial view near Ein Avdat along the Nabataean trade route from Petra to Gaza. In the foreground are the stone walls at the bottom of the valley to stop the flow of water in the agricultural fields.

that the identification is invalid 18 [1955]: 85-86). However, non-biblical sources and archaeological evidence indicate that after the end of the Old Testament period, and particularly in the first century B.C. During the Christian era, the Nabateans were a major political power in the NAE.

The Nabataeans are often associated with the magnificent SSE ruins of, but their political domain sometimes extended from W to N to their (Aramaic) context of origin (on the latter, cf. J. T. Milik instudies no a History mi archeology Von Jordan, editionA. Hadidi, 3 volumes [1982-87], 1:261-65). Although their native language was probably an early form of Arabic, they adopted the lingua franca of the Persian Empire as their primary means of communication. The Nabataeans occupied the old territory and controlled some of the rich trade routes that connected the most important areas of the kingdom,The Bible. hist.19.94-96). Attempts to subdue the Nabateans were unsuccessful.

The classical period or Golden Age of the Nabateans was the 1st century B.C. v. and the first century of this era. During this period they settled extensively on the lands formerly occupied by the Edomites and Moabites and farmed the land extensively. They also incorporated the Negev and Sinai into their kingdom. During that time, they developed a brilliant civilization with dynamic creativity and speed unmatched in history. The sudden end came with the Roman conquest in the early 2nd century BCE.

JOSEPHUS and some inscriptions provide information about certain Nabataean kings. The first king mentioned in the sources is I (cf. 2 Mac 5, 8), a sovereign from the 2nd century BC. v. at the time of the rebellion of the Maccabees. Around the year 100 a. C. Aretas II ruled over the Nabataeans and expanded the territory of his kingdom at the expense of diminishing power in Palestine. Aretas II was succeeded by his son Obadas I, who reconquered much of Palestine, and by the ruler of Palestine, Alexander Janaeus, whom he ruled around 90 BC. defeated in battle. Under Aretas III. The Nabataeans became a powerful and independent nation in Transjordan and resisted Roman rule for the next century and a half, despite Roman and Herodian attempts to subdue them. It was at this time that they also gained control of the MYRRH and FRANKINCENSE trade from southern Arabia to the Mediterranean (some scholars have speculated that they were actually Nabataeans, or that they bought at Petra on the way to Judea).

Their greatest king in this period was Aretas IV Philodemus, who from 9 B.C. at 40 d. Although Aretas helped the Romans subdue the Jews after the Great's death, he initially got along with Herod Antipas, son of Herod the Great and tetrarch of e (see V), who was the daughter of the married Aretas. Around the year 27 AD. C., Herod Antipas divorced her in favor of her brother's wife. This led to two troublesome conflicts in Herod's life. The first was with EL, who categorically denounced him for his conjugal activities (Mt. 14: 3-5; Mc. 6: 17-20; Lc. 3: 19-20). The other conflict was with Aretas IV, father of his first wife. In AD 36, Aretas defeated Herod in battle and recaptured much territory, possibly as far north as Damascus. An attempt by the Romans to avenge Herod by attacking Aretas failed due to the death of the emperor.

At the time of the flight after his conversion (Acts 9:23-25), an ETNARCH of Aretas guarded the city (2 Corinthians 11:32-33). The exact nature of the Nabataean presence in Damascus is unknown, but the text indicates some form of military or police control of the city. Successors to Aretas IV included Malichus II (AD 40-70) and Rabbel II, the last king of the Nabateans, who died in AD 106 and annexed Nabatae to the Roman Empire. Bostra became the capital of the new province called Arabia (see No. 3). This was the beginning of the Bostra era, which was frequently used in the date lines of inscriptions in that area for centuries to come.

The largest Nabataean ruins are found at Petra, south of the Dead Sea. In this valley, surrounded by practically impassable mountains, are the ruins that illustrate the unique architecture of the Nabateans. The structures were carved out of living rock and exhibit remarkable engineering. The typical Nabatean façade consists of a series of columns (carvednowith niches with sculptures between the columns that support a tray decorated with a frieze. Above is a split pediment with a vaulted structure in the middle, resembling an inverted urn. The suspended dome type was possibly developed by the Nabateans (Safwan K. Tell,Yearly Von a Department Von antiques Von Jordan14 [1969], 35-37 [in Arabic]). They had a unique method of working stone: lines cut diagonally into the stone or rock. Most of the rock-cut structures at Petra appear to be mausoleums related to a cult of the dead rather than temples. Another important Nabataean site is at Jebel et-Tannur (excavated by Nelson Glueck in 1937), southeast of the Dead Sea, where a succession of sanctuaries with numerous carved figures and designs have been discovered, perhaps the most important being statues of and the goddess.

The Nabateans made a unique contribution to Palestinian pottery. "Nabataean tableware" is very fine and smooth, almost like porcelain. The shapes were beautifully symmetrical, often with delicate dark brown or black decorations on the red plates. The material is so distinctive that the presence of a small fragment at one point strongly suggests Nabataean occupation. (See J. Patrick,Die Training Von em nabateu Until: exile Von and Recorded photo under a Nabataean[1990].)

Prior to the discovery of the Nabateans, which include some papyri, the only literary remains of the Nabateans were inscriptions and graffiti in the Sinai and Transjordan, particularly Petra. Nabatean was a form of Aramaic with a strong Arabic influence. The Nabataean papyri, dating from the 1st century B.C. from the Christian era, provide new data for the study of the dialect. The script developed by the Nabataeans resembles the Hebrew and Aramaic scripts of the time, but the letters are uncharacteristically elongated vertically, a practice that allows the letters to be densely packed. This script is considered the forerunner of the Arabic alphabet.

The main Nabataean deity was a god called Dushara (Hellenized form, Dushares), symbolized by a stone block or obelisk. In Tannur, the main god was Hadad, the Syrian storm god, equivalent to the Greek Zeus. Atargatis, the Greek equivalent, appears to have been some kind of fertility goddess (see FERTILITY). Evidence of Nabataean religious practices can be seen in the "high places" (outdoor sanctuaries of the gods) such as Conway High Place and the Great High Place of Robinson in Petra, with processional forms, altars, and bowls or basins. Sites for ritual animal sacrifices can also be found, for example, above Ed-Deir in Petra. As archaeological research continues, particularly in the Negev and Transjordan, more information is expected about the Nabataeans, who were in many ways among the most notable and energetic peoples in the eastern Mediterranean during the Roman period.

(The fundamental work is J. Cantineau,Die nabateu, 2Volumes [1930-32]. See more N. Luck,Die Others Page Von a Jordan,Revolution. edition [1970], chap. 6; PC Hammond,Die Nabatean: are History, cultural mi archeology[1973]; G. W. Bowersock,romano arabia[1983]; A. Néguev,em nabateu archeology hoy[1986]; A. Kasher, Juden,Idumean mi alternative Arabica[1988]; J. F. Healey,Die Religion Von a Nabatean: AND A questionnaire[2001]; J.Taylor,Petra mi a Lost Kingdom Von a Nabataean[2002]; GA Crawford,Petra mi a Nabatean: AND bibliography[2003]; G. Markoe, Hrsg.,Petra Rediscovered: Lost Ciudad Von a Nabataean[2003]; S. M. Rababeh,as the Petra Guerra built[2005];nah,4:1181-92.)


Nabonidusnab'uh-ni'duhs (Latin form of Gk. Naßóvvηδoς).Se. ag. application.1.149-53; in Herodotushist.1.74, Aassύvητoς]; of acc. "[the god Nabu] must be worshipped"). The last king of Chaldean Babylon, 556-539 B.C. look and

UE. Fuentes.An 84-line tablet known as the Nabonidus Chronicle (British Museum 35382), three stelae from Haran, and a libelous "verse account" of his reign are among the direct historical sources (cf.A NETWORK,305-7, 308-16, 560-63). These can be supplemented by numerous contemporary commercial and economic documents, and by the later accounts of Greek historians, namely, and Berossus (the last preserved inSe. apion1:20-21 of Euseb.preparation Gospel9.41). The case of is described in Dan. 5 (in which Jos.Ant.10.11.2 supported). This has been compared to the account of the madness of (Dan. 4:23-33). Since Herodotus calls Nebuchadnezzar and Nabonidus by the same name (Labinetus), it has been argued that the sentence in Dan. 4:23-33 may refer to Nabonidus himself (cf.

II. Family.Nabonidus was the only son of Nabūbalāssu-iqbi, an unknown "wise prince and governor" in Haran. His mother, Adda-guppi', was an influential devotee of the gods Sin, Ningal, Nusgu and Sardarunna, who died in 547 BC. she died at age 104 and received a state funeral and public mourning. Both were probably of royal blood, and Nabonidus may have been related by marriage to Nebuchadnezzar, so that his son and co-ruler Bel-šar-usur could claim descent from that illustrious monarch (see Dan. 5:11, 18). ). He had a daughter, Bēl-šalti-nannar, high priestess of the moon god Sin in Ur.

third Government.If identical with the person of the same name in a treatise from Nebuchadnezzar's eighth year, then he was a chief official of a Babylonian city, and thus may have been the Labynetus acting as a Babylonian mediator, with sienesis between Aliattes de and Astyagen from 585 BC. Nebuchadnezzar was followed by a period of family strife, during which the rulers were his son (for two years), his son-in-law Neriglissar (for four years), and another son, Labashi-Marduk, who was recognized as king for only two months, May-June 556 BC, partly from Babylonia. Nabonidus, supported by other cities, was accepted as sole ruler at the end of June.

Two years later, Nabonidus transferred the rule of Babylon to his son Belshazzar, whom he had appointed co-ruler (cf.A NETWORK,313b). He himself moved to Haran, where he began the restoration of the temple of the moon god Sin, Ehulhul, after its destruction by the Medes, as instructed in a dream. See From there he moved S to attack Adummu and the NW Sheikh who was killed. Here Nabonidus established himself with his Babylonian and Syro-Palestinian troops and gained control of an area south of Dedan and Yathrib (Medina).

Several theories have been proposed to explain the ten years that Nabonidus spent in this area. It was considered an act of folly (Daniel 4) or a wise economic move to control the valuable spice routes from southern Arabia north to Babylon and Egypt. The merchant tables show that the king maintained contact with his capital, Babylon, and it is clear that such a stay would not have been possible without the peaceful relations he claimed to have with the Arabs. It is possible that the change is related to the terrible famine that devastated Babylon and that Nabonidus attributes to the impiety of the people. There prices rose fifty percent in the decade between 560 and 550, while the rain never stopped pouring. It is unlikely that the voluntary exile was due to a desire to avoid close contact with the emerging power, since Astiages did not die until 549 BC. he was captured by Cyrus.

According to the Harran stela, the attitudes of the Egyptian kings (Amasis II) and the Medes (Cyrus at the time) changed. The Arabs and other rulers would also have resumed good relations. Then, on the seventeenth of Teshrit in 545, Nabonidus returned to Babylon, where he carried out work on various sanctuaries, including that of the sun god Shamash at Sippar. The weakness of the state was evident both in its economy and in its defense. Fears invaded Zone E of the Tiger; the Elamites, southern parts of Babylon. In 547 he brought the gods of the most important cities to Babylon to rescue them from the advancing enemies, now aided by the deserter Gobryas of Gutium.

The Persians invaded Babylon in 539. The city was cunningly taken without a fight on October 12. That night, Belshazzar was killed (Daniel 5:30). Nabonidus, who fled to Borsippa, returned to the city and was captured. According to tradition, he died in exile in Carmania (Jos.apion1.20). Seventeen days later Cyrus himself entered the city and took the throne. Political power in Babylonia now passed from the hands of the Semites to the Persians.

4. Religion.It was common to see Nabonidus as a reformer who sought to replace and bring to the fore the worship of the moon god Sin in Babylon. In this view, he was frustrated by a priestly party in the country, which forced him into exile in Arabia, where he could freely engage in this cult. On the other hand, inscriptions of him show that although he was interested in the shrines of Sin for family reasons, he showed customary piety in restoring the temples of other deities, including Marduk in Babylon and Shamash in Sippar. Other deities also receive due attention in his aedilic inscriptions. His involvement in the restoration work led to his being called a "royal archaeologist", but his interest in the past, exemplified by copies of earlier texts found in the course of the restoration work, especially at Ur, stems only from ancient tradition. Babylonian. .

Cyrus' account is certainly intended to slander Nabonidus, accusing him of injustice, disrespect for property, and failure to observe the proper rites of the New Year's feast. It could well be a later attempt to vindicate the Persian conqueror in the eyes of the vanquished, although some of the historical information contained is undoubtedly accurate. The evaluation of the two points of view must await the discovery of other texts.

(See more S. Smith,Babylonian Historic Text With reference to for a capture mi death Von Babylon[1924], pp. 27–123; R. P. Dougherty,Nabonidus mi Balthazar[1929]; J Lewy hereHUCA19 [1946]: 405–489; J.T. Milik inRB62 [1956]: 407ss.; C. J. Gadd emanatolia studies8 [1958]: 35–92; PENSILVANIA. Beaulieu,Die Government Von os nabonis, König Von Babylon, 556–539 v.Chr.[1989; see also his summary inVALUES,2:969-79]; bag rein RHabd,4:973-76; D. J. Wiseman emCAH3/2, 2ª ed. [1991], 243–51; PENSILVANIA. Beaulieu,legal mi administration Text Von a Government Von Nabonidus[2002].)


os nabonis, sentenceA fragmentary manuscript discovered in Qumran Cave IV (4QPrNab = 4Q242) and dated to the 1st century c. BC, although the original composition may be earlier by a century or two. The reconstruction of this short text is problematic in some details, but it evidently refers to a prayer of King Nabonidus when he was tormented for seven years at Teiman (Teima) by a severe skin disease (see After the King Confessed His Sin , the O The Jewish exile tells him to worship the Highest Scholars have been intrigued by the similarities of this document with the account of the madness of (Dan. 4:23-33), and some argue that the latter descends from the first or that both reflect a common tradition (see F.M. Cross inIEJ 34[1984]: 260-64; F. García Martinez,Qumran mi Apocalyptic: studies a a arameo Text Von Qumran[1992], 116-36; E. Puech-inTargumico mi Related Studies: Rehearsal no honor Von kingfisher McNamara,ed. KJ Cathcart and M. Maher [1996], 208-27.)

Nabopolassarnab'uh-puh-las'uhr (acordo.Nabū-apla-uṣur,"May [the god] Nabu protect the son!"). First king (626-605 BC) of the Neo-Babylonian ("Chaldean") dynasty and father of II. Within a few years he was in control of all of Babylon and formed an important alliance with Cyaxares, king of the Medes (cf.

In the year 615 a. C. he failed to conquer it, but when it fell to the Medes in 614, he shared the booty. To conclude a treaty between Nabopolassar and Cyaxares, king of the Medes, the latter gave his daughter Amytis in marriage to Nabopolassar's son Nebuchadnezzar. After this treaty with Cyaxares, the hill tribes were quiet and Nabopolassar was able to force Assyria's former vassals in Palestine and Cilicia to pay him tribute. His army was well trained in Assyrian fighting methods and eventually he and his ally conquered in 612. This conquest meant that the Assyrian Empire was divided and the southern part fell to Nabopolassar. In 609 Haran, the last Assyrian stronghold, fell to the Babylonians. To see

In 606, Nabopolassar took charge of the front lines, where Egyptian power posed a threat to the entire western part of his newly conquered empire. Pharaoh II of Egypt invaded Palestine and Syria to win his share of the fallen Assyrian Empire and it was Nebuchadnezzar the crown prince, acting on behalf of his ailing father, who won the conquest of Carchemish and the Egyptian army returned home in 605 King Nabopolassar He returned to Babylon in the spring of the same year and died there on August 15.

Nabopolassar presented himself as a pious man who rose from humble beginnings to become king, but he was very proud of his victory over Assyria. He started several buildings in Babylon and other places that were completed by his son Nebuchadnezzar. This included improving irrigation around Babylon and beautifying the city itself.

Although Nabopolassar is not mentioned in the Bible, Judah may have been his friend (since he had been an ally of the Babylonians), as Josiah lost his life in a vain attempt to prevent Pharaoh Necho II from running to the aid of the Assyrians. . (See more D.J. Wiseman,Chronicles Von a astrologer reyes[1956], pp. 5–21; GRAMS.rojo, alternative Irak, 2editor [1980]; S. Zawadzki,Die decline Von assyrian mi Middle Babylonian Relations no a Hell Von a Nabopolassar Chronic[1988]; PENSILVANIA. Beaulieu,Die Government Von os nabonis, König Von Babylon 556-539 v.Chr.[1989]; J. Oates in CAH 3/2, 2nd ed. [1991], 162-93.)


Nabothnot both (Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (17)h5559,"Growth, sprout", possibly a shortened form of a theophoric name, like B. "Seed of Yahweh" [cf. LXX Nassoυθaι]). The owner of a vineyard coveted by the king because it was near his alternate royal palace (1 Kings 21:1-29), probably on the eastern side of the city (2 Kings 9:25-26). Ahab offered Naboth money or a better vineyard. Naboth refused on the grounds that it was part of his father's estate, belonging to families rather than individuals, and Naboth had harmed his descendants by selling it, breaking God's law (Lev. 25:23-28; Numbers 36:7-9). ). Ahab himself did not press the issue, but his wife did. She showed her cruel and ruthless character by organizing a "legal" method to take Naboth's life and, apparently, his children as well. She ordered the Jezreel officials to call false witnesses and thus achieve the death sentence for Naboth's blasphemy against God and the king. Her orders were carried out, revealing the strength of her control over the country. This gave Ahab access to the vineyard,

Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (18)

Aerial view of the remains of Jezreel from SE. Adjacent to this city was the vineyard of Naboth.

but when he came to possess it, he found it and proclaimed God's judgment upon him and all the royal house. When Ahab repented, he was granted a temporary truce (1 Kings 21:27-29) until his death in The dogs licked up his blood in the pool as he was washed from his chariot (22:38). Full fulfillment came when he killed Ahab's second son (2 Kings 9:24), put Jezebel to death in Jezreel (9:33), and then executed Ahab's remaining sons in Samaria (10:1-11). ). (See CF Keil,Die books Von a reyes[1872], 269-73; F. I. Andersen emJBL85 [1966]: 46-57; Y. Zakovitch, Appendix in M. Weiss,Die The Bible Von Within[1984], 379–405; PT Cronauer,Die stories Above Naboth a Jesreelit[2005].)


they acquirever

Nebuchadnezzarnab'uh-kuh-don'uh-sor. KJV Rev. Form of (Jdt. 1:1 et al.).

NachónWe go. KJV form of

Upno'kor. Alternative KJV form of (Joshua 24:2; Luke 3:34 only).

Naconnein'kon (Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (19)h5789,possibly "established"). KJV Nachon; "TNIV Nakon. The thresher next to him died because he touched the ark while it was being transported (2 Sam. 6:6; and the parallel passage in 1 Chronicles 13:9 says. Some have speculated that the form here is not a proper name and that the phrase "certain age" or "the age" (i.e. destruction) should be translated See discussion below

Nadabno'dab (Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (20)h5606,possibly short form ofChapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (21)h5608,"Yahweh is willing"). (1) Eldest son of e (Exodus 6:23; Numbers 3:2; 26:60; 1 Chronicles 6:3; 24:1). He and his next younger sister were allowed to accompany Aaron and seventy Israelite elders as they went up Mount Sinai to see a representation of God and eat and drink in the presence of God. This official group represented Israel in intimate communion with God, according to the new covenant relationship ratified shortly before that day (24:3-8).

Nadab and his brothers Abihu were admitted to the priestly office along with their father Aaron (Exodus 28:1; Leviticus 8:1-36). After several days of consecration, on the eighth day, when the official service began, Nadab and Abihu sinned by offering "profane" (NIV, "unauthorized") fire before the Lord. They were immediately consumed in death by the fire of the Lord (Lev 10:1-2; Num 3:4). To emphasize the seriousness of the sin, Aaron and his two living sons forbade the customary mourning ceremonies to be performed for them (Lev 10:6). Both men died without issue (Numbers 3:4; 1 Chronicles 24:2).

The exact nature of the sin is unclear. The words of Moses (Numbers 3:3) imply that sin came from hearts that were not in tune with the HOLINESS of God, and apparently their hearts were proud. The termI see H2424("strange, illegal"), denoting what they offered, suggests a flaw in the type of fire used. Some passages (Leviticus 16:12; Numbers 16:46) imply that the fire from the brazen altar would be used as incense. Nadab and Abiú may have taken coals from other places. His act is described as setting fire to the censers and placing INCENSE on them while they are still in the censers. This must be the case on the Day of Atonement (Lev. 16:12-13), but otherwise the incense must be offered on the golden altar (Ex. 30:7-8; see ALTAR). Furthermore, it seems that they sacrificed incense to offer it morning and night (Exodus 30:7-8), but the time involved was a different period during the day, between the sacrificial activity of Leviticus 9 and the ceremonial meal of Leviticus 9. .Moses. 10:12-20 Additionally, the arrangement in Leviticus 10:9-10 may indicate that the brothers were under the influence of strong drink at the time.

(2) Son of Shammai and descendant of Through (1 Chron. 2:28, 30).

(3) Son and descendant of what appears to be King's great-uncle (1 Chronicles 8:30-33; 9:35-39).

(4) Son of I and king of Israel c. 910–909 B.C. (1 Kings 15:25-31). His two years of reign (vv. 25) were actually only parts of two years (cf. vv. 25, 28, 33). It is said that he besieged (v. 27) a city belonging to the tribe of Dan (Joshua 19: 40-46) and called it a Levitical city (Joshua 21:23). At that time he was in custody (1 Kings 15:27; 16:15). Though comparatively small, Gibbethon must have been considered important, for twenty-six years later the then-general under the king besieged it again (16:15-17). he besieged it and even painted the city on a plaque in his palace in Khorsabad and called it Gab-bu-tu-nu. Nadab was killed by his successor during the siege of Gibbethon. Baasha destroyed the entire house of Jeroboam, fulfilling the prophecy (14:10-11).

(5) Ahikar's nephew who attended the wedding of his son Tobias (Tob. 11:18). Later, after planning to kill Ahikar, Nadab received damnation from God (14:10). He is known as Nadan in Mesopotamian legend.Die Words Von ahikar(I see


nadabatnad'uh-bad (Naδaßaθ). A place mentioned once in (1 Mac. 9:37). Jonathan and Simon, avenging the execution of their brother John by the "Sons of Jambri", a tribe, ambush a wedding procession. The bride was taken from Nadabath to this city in Transjordan, perhaps the ancient Moabite city referred to as Nabatha in 13.1.4). Others identify it with modern Khirbet et-Teim, just S of Medeba. (For another approach, see J. Goldstein,UE maccabees,AB 41 [1977], 384-85.)


NaggaiCows (Naγγaι KJV Cow. Son of Maath, contained in the GENEALOGY OF Luke (Luke 3:25).

Very sorryNag'ee. KJV format of

Power Hamadi librarynahg'huh-mah'di. In 1945, a dozen Coptic manuscripts (plus part of a thirteenth) were accidentally discovered near the modern Egyptian city of Nag Hammadi. These leather codices were apparently found in the village of Faw Qibli (near al-Qaṣr, ancient Chenoboskion); They were hidden in a jar behind a large rock at the bottom of a cliff called Jebel al-Tharif. Over time they were acquired by the Coptic Museum in Old Cairo. The importance of these manuscripts quickly became apparent, as they were preserved until the 4th century BC. AD and containing more than fifty treatises expressing what might be called Gnostic Christianity. It appears that these writings were originally written in Greek a century or two earlier.

Prior to this discovery, our knowledge of Gnostic ideas in early Christianity was largely limited to partial (and hostile) descriptions in patristic literature. However, it is now possible to read the writings associated with this movement first hand and in context. The various booklets are very different in character: some have a strong connection to Jewish traditions, others reflect non-Christian philosophical treatises, and still others consist of texts. Many of the documents contain obscure myths, made worse by their fragmentary nature and the fact that numerous copying and translation errors were introduced in the course of transmission. However, these writings opened up a new world for students of early heterodox Christianity and shed considerable light on post-apostolic religious developments. Furthermore, some scholars have argued that some of the texts have a direct and independent connection to the teachings of Jesus (cf.

The following is a complete list of booklets in each MS (NHC = Nag Hammadi Codex); Note that copies of multiple booklets are maintained in more than one codex. See separate articles for a brief synopsis of each brochure. (A convenient official English translation of all treatises is found in For a more complete edition, including Coptic texts and commentaries, see J. M. Robinson, ed.,Die coptic Gnostic library[2000]. See also K. Rudolf,Gnosis: Die Nature mi History Von Gnosticism[1984], insb. 34 – 52; S. Giversen et al., Eds.,Die Power Hamadi Text no a History Von Religion[2002]; 4:982-93.) For a discussion of the Gnostic worldview and additional bibliography, see

I, 1: Prayer of the Apostle Paul

I, 2: Apocryphon of Jakobus

I, 3: Gospel of truth (cf. XII, 2)

I, 4: Treatise on the Resurrection

I, 5: Tripartite Treaties

II, 1: Apocrypha of John (cf. III, 1 and IV, 1)

II, 2: Thomas-Evangelium

II, 3: Felipe - Gospel

II, 4: Hypostasis of the Archons

II, 5: On the origin of the world (cf. XIII, 2)

II, 6: Exegesis of the soul

II, 7: Book of Thomas the Defiant

III, 1: Apocrypha of John (cf. II, 1 and IV, 1)

III, 2: Gospel of the Egyptians (cf. IV, 2)

III, 3: Eugnostos o Beato (cf. V, 1)

III, 4: Sophia of Jesus Christ

III, 5: Dialogue of the Redeemer

IV, 1: Apocrypha of John (cf. II, 1 and III, 1)

IV, 2: Gospel of the Egyptians (cf. III, 2)

V, 1: Eugnostos o Beato (cf. III, 3)

5, 2: Apocalypse of Paul

V, 3: First Apocalypse of Santiago

V, 4: Second Apocalypse of Santiago

V, 5: Apocalipsis Adams

VI, 1: Acts of Peter and the Twelve Apostles

VI, 2: Thunder, perfect spirit

VI, 3: Authoritative teaching

VI, 4: Concept of our great power

VI, 5: The Republic of Plato (No. 588B – 589B)

VI, 6: Discourse on the Eighth and Ninth

VI, 7: Prayer of thanksgiving

VI, 8: Asklepios (only 21 – 29)

VII, 1: paraphrase of Shem

VII, 2: Second Treatise on the Great Set

VII, 3: Revelation of Peter

VII, 4: Teachings of Silvano

VII, 5: Three Stelae of Set

VIII, 1: Zostrianos

VIII, 2: Letter of Peter and Philip

IX, 1: Melquisedec

IX, 2: Thought of Norea

IX, 3: Testimony of the truth

X, 1: Marsanians

XI, 1: Interpretation of knowledge

XI, 2: Valentine's Exhibition

XI, 2a: On the anointing

XI, 2b: About Baptism A

XI, 2c: On Baptism B

XI, 2d: Envelope in Eucharist A

XI, 2e: Envelope a Eucharist B

XI, 3: Allogenic

XI, 4: Hipifron

XII, 1: Sentences of Sextus

XII, 2: Gospel of truth (cf. I, 3)

XII, 3: Fragments

XIII, 1: Trimorphe Protennoia

XIII, 2: On the origin of the world (cf. II, 5)

It should also be noted that a Coptic papyrus codex in Berlin (BG 8502) contains theApocryphal Von John(NHC II, 1, and others) andSofia Von Jesus Cristo(NHC III, 4), as well as two other pamphlets,Gospel Von Maríamibehaviour Von

Chosen onenay'huh-lal (Heb.Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (22)besides that, besides moreChapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (23)H5636[Judge. 1:30], "Regatory"). A city assigned to the tribe of (Joshua 19:15; KJV, "Nahallal") and then given to Levites descended from (21:35). Zebulun was unable to expel the Canaanite residents living among them, but they became forced laborers (Judges 1:30; here the name appears in the form "Nahalol"). Nahalal was evidently nearby, but the exact location is uncertain. There is a modern city called Nahalal about 10 km away. N of and some nearby sites have been identified with the Biblical city (cf. J. Simons,Die geographically mi topographic Text Von a alternative Testament[1959], 182). WF Albright formerly preferred Tell en-Naḥl, which is much further west (about 6 miles east of the Mediterranean, north of the river near the S end of the Acco plain); see AASOR 2-3 [1923]:26), but this identification requires that the tribal territory of Zabulun have extended to part of. There is insufficient evidence to confirm the various proposals.


Nahalielnuh-hay'lee-uhl (Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (24)"palmeral river] of God"). A resting place for the Israelites at the end of their pilgrimage (Numbers 21:19). Evidently, Nahaliel was located between and , but the exact location of these places is unknown. If the name alludes to a wadi, it may be one of the wadi's northern tributaries.

Chosen onenuh-hal'uhl. KJV alternate form of (Joshua 19:15 only).

Nahalolnay'huh-lol. alternative way of

Nahamwithout ham (Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (25)"Comfort"). Brother of the woman included in the genealogy of (1 Chr. 4:19).

Nahamani(Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (26)"Comfort", possibly an abbreviation forChapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (27)"Yahweh comforted", with double ending-andand [Noth, 39, 175]; see An Israelite mentioned among the leaders who returned with (Nehemiah 7:7) from Babylon; apparently called "Aeneneus" in 1 Esd. 5:8 [KJV, “Enenio”; RSV suspect "Bigvai"]; the name is omitted in the parallel in Ezra 2:2).

narayan(Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (28)maybe "worker" or "skinny"). A man who served as a bearer of weapons and belonged to mighty warriors (2 Samuel 23:37 [some eds. by KJV, "Nahari"]; 1 Chronicles 11:39).

NahariKJV alternate form of

Nahashwithout hash (Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (29)"Line"; but cf. also according to "to be exuberant"). (1) King of the late 11th century B.C. v. Shortly after becoming king of Israel, Nahash besieged and agreed to make a treaty with its inhabitants "only on the condition that I gouge out the right eye of each one of you and thus put all Israel to shame" (1 Corinthians 11:1- 2). . This incident led Saul to prove himself king by inciting Israel against Nahash and defeating him (1 Sam. 11:4-11; cf. 12:12).

One precedes this story with a paragraph that many scholars consider original. It is contained in the NRSV as follows: “Now Nahash, the king of the Ammonites, had severely oppressed the Gadites and the Reubenites. He would put out the right eye of each one of them and would not give Israel a deliverer. There was not one of the Israelites left on the other side of the Jordan whose right eye Nahash king of the Ammonites had not opened. But there were seven thousand men who escaped from the Ammonites and entered Jabez-gilead. About a month later…” (here the scroll summarizes the text of 1 Sam. 11:1; cf. Jos.ant6.5.1 §§68 - 70). Whether this material is really authentic (but see, for example, T. L. Eves inWTJ44 [1982]: 308-26), indicates that the siege of Jabesh Gilead was only one (the last) of a series of repressive acts by Nahash against the Transjordanian tribes of Gad and Reuben.

After 2 Sat. 10: 1-2 (= 1 Chr. 19: 1-2), after "the king of the Ammonites died", he said to himself: "I will be kind to Hanun the son of Nahash, just as his father was kind to me." Many scholars suggest that Nahas must have helped David when he was running from Saul, his common enemy. One scholar has speculated that the specific kindness mentioned here refers to a much later time when David received provisions from the son of Nahash during a rebellion (2 Sam. 17:27; see P. K. McCarter, Jr.,IIAB 9 [1984], 273-74). However, the chronology is problematic; moreover, the Nahash of the last passage has been thought by some to be an entirely different individual (cf. KD, 434). It has also been suggested that the Nahash mentioned in 10:2 was a descendant of the one mentioned in 11:1, although the biblical text gives no indication that they are two different persons. See also #2 below.

(2) Father of the sister of (2 Sam. 17:25). Both women are called David's sisters (1 Chronicles 2:16), although David's father's name was not Nahas. Perhaps the best explanation is that Nahash was David's mother's first husband; In this case, those two women were David's half-sisters and Jesse's stepdaughters. Some have argued that this Nahash is the same as #1 above, in which case David would have a connection to the Ammonite royal family even before the conflicts between Saul and Nahash (note that after his capture, the Ammonite crown was at the head of David and was configured). 2 Sam. 12:30 pm; see 4:496).

(3) Possibly the name of a city in Judah. To see


Natena'hath (Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (30)possibly "rest" or "pure"). (1) Son of Reuel and grandson of an Edomite clan chief (Genesis 36:13, 17; 1 Chronicles 1:37).

(2) Son of Zophai, descendant and ancestor of (1 Chr. 6:26; possibly the same as in v. 34 and 1 Sam. 1:1, both identified as son of

(3) A Levite who was overseer of the temple sacrifices in the king's time (2 Chronicles 31:13).


nabi(Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (31)possibly "shy"). Son of Vofsi, from the tribe of and one of the twelve spies sent to explore the Promised Land (Numbers 13:14).

hochno'hor (Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (32)uncertain meaning;Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (33)KJV also Nachor (Joshua 24:2 only; Luke 3:34). (1) Son of Serug, descendant of father and grandfather of (Genesis 11:22-25; 1 Chronicles 1:26); contained in the GENEALOGY of Luke (Luke 3:34). After Terah's birth in his twenty-ninth year, Nahor "lived 119 years and begat sons and daughters" (Genesis 11:25).

(2) Second son of Terah and brother of Abraham and (Gen. 11:26-29; Joshua 24:2). A list is given of Nahor's twelve sons (Gen 22:20-24), eight by his wife, who was the daughter of his brother Haran (Gen 11:29; 24:15, 24, 47) and four by his concubine. A The statement that these "sons" of Nahor must have represented the names of twelve Aramaic tribes or localities does not necessarily follow from the text. was once called the "son" of Nahor (NRSV 29:5), but the Hebrew wordben H1201it can refer to an offspring, that is, a grandson (cf. NIV). When they made the covenant in Laban, they called on "the God of Abraham, the God of Nahor, the God of his father" (31:53). The key is that Laban distinguishes between the deities of and himself (cf. vv. 29 and 42; however, this distinction does not apply to the God of the patriarchs, as A. Alt suggests,a intestine a country[1929]).

(3) A city mentioned in Genesis 24:10. The reference may refer to a city called Nacor or be understood as a personal name referring to #2 above; in the latter case, the passage can be translated as "the city where Nahor lived", that is, Haran. See However, the Akkadian name appears frequently in the texts and refers to a location in northern Mesopotamia. It must have been near Haran (Gen 27:43; 28:10; 29:4-5; cf. J. Simons,geographically mi topographic Text Von a alternative Testament[1959], 219).


afternah'shon (Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (34)"little snake";Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (35)KJV also Naashon (Exod. 6:23) and Nahshon (Matt. 1:4; Luke 3:32). Son of Aminadab, descendant of grandfather (or ancestor) of and ancestor of content in the GENEALOGY OF (Ruth 4:20; 1 Chr. 2:10-11; Mt. 1:4; Lk. 3:32). Nahshon was the leader of the tribe of Judah when they were encamped in the desert (Numbers 2:3). As such, he helped take a census of the Israelites (1:7) and brought offerings to the Lord on the first day of the dedication (7:12-17). As this tribe led the way while the entire nation moved, Nachshon was an important man (10:14). His sister married (Exodus 6:23).

R. L.

Nahumno buzzing (Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (36)possibly "[God] comforts" or "Comforter";Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (37)(1) An author of a prophetic book (Na. 1:1). To see

(2) Son of Esli contained in Luke's GENEALOGY (Luke 3:25; KJV, "Nahum").

naum, tripeThe seventh book among the minor prophets. It belongs to that class of prophecy known asprophecy contra People(Prophecies against the nations); predicts the fall and destruction of the proud capital of the mighty Assyrian empire (see E

UE.The consensus of critical scholarship refers only to Nah. 2:3-3:19 as the original. It is argued that 1:2-10 is a minor addition, mainly because this passage is interpreted in part as an alphabetic psalm, and because it is said to be unrelated to the central theme of the book. However, these arguments are not decisive. First, it is evident that the acrostic is incomplete and that the initials of vv. and rearrangements of lines, the acrostic theory can be deciphered" (G. L. Archer, Jr.,AND study Von alternative TestamentRevolution. edition [1994], 392). The theory that this type of acrostic only appeared in the 4th century BC. it became popular. v. BC assumes a late courtship from Lam. 1-4 and from Ps. 34; 37; 111; 112; 119; 145. There is no reason why someone of as eminent poetic ability as Nahum could not have written this passage. Second, the charge that there is no reference to Nineveh is obviously refuted by the fact that Nineveh is mentioned in the title and especially alluded to in v. 8. In fact, this passage is a fitting introduction to Nahum's prophecy, emphasizing both REVENGE against God's enemies and comfort for those who take refuge in Him.

There are differences of opinion regarding the middle passage (Na. 1:11-2:2). According to some, this section is part editorial and part original of Nahum's prophecy. The main objection to its originality is the "artificially balanced" presentation of the enemy's judgment and promise to God's people. However, these two aspects of prophecy go together in terms of cause and effect.

II.The second part of the title (Nah. 1: 1) attributes "the book" to Nahum of Elkosh (see According to some scholars (Smit, Goslinga) this part of the title was added to preserve the name of the Prophet and to characterize the oracle as “Book .” Luke 3:25ff Nothing is known about this prophet other than the book that bears his name.

thirdTwo important events mark the approximate date of this prophecy: the fall of (Walter Maier,Die tripe Von Name: AND commentary[1959], 34) 668/7 of and the fall of 612. The first event is mentioned in Nah. 3:8-10 as historical fact, and the fall of Nineveh is prophesied as a future event. Within these limits, a wide range of conflicting dates have been proposed. Most critical scholars prefer a date just before the fall of Nineveh. According to Pfeiffer, "the poem was undoubtedly composed between 625 and 612, probably between 614 and 612."for a alternative Testament[1941], 596). The main reason for this view is the assumption that the fall of Nineveh is considered imminent. According to J.M.P. Smith, "The invasion of Assyria has begun"Critical mi exegetical commentary aCCI [1911], 275).

However, this immediacy is read in the text. Internal evidence in the book itself points to this.

Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (38)

The Book of Nahum predicts the collapse of the Assyrian kingdom and the fall of Nineveh.

a much earlier date. The description of Nineveh assumes a city bathed in splendor and power, and this could hardly be true for Nineveh shortly after the death of c.626. It is known that Assyria had lost its authority over the territories of the O during the reign of the king of Judah (639-609). When Nahum wrote his prophecy, Judah was still subject to Assyrian tyranny (Nah. 1:13) and plunder (2:2; cf. 1:15). However, during the reign of Josiah there was no occasion for the prophet to describe Judah's deliverance and joy as a result of the fall of Nineveh, for at that time Judah was no longer under Assyrian rule (cf. 2 Kings 23). .

Two other dates have been proposed, one just before 626, related to an alleged attack on Nineveh led by Cyaxares, king of Media, and another just before 652-648, related to the Babylonian rebellion led by Shamash-shum-ukin. These theories are hypothetical and are based on the assumption that Nahum's prophecy must have had some basis in specific historical events. The author of the present work prefers a date shortly after the fall of Thebes. The reference to this event as an argument against Assyria gains force since the prophecy was uttered shortly after Ashurbanipal took and destroyed Thebes. Perhaps it would be safe to date the prophecy before 654, for it was then that Thebes began to rise from its ruins (cf. Maier, 36). Scholars dating back to Nahum have taken extreme positions.To post event(Sellin, Humbert) or the same in the Macabeu period (O. Happel).

4. ort VonContrary to the translation that Nahum was from the "House of Koshi," scholars agree that "elkoshita" is a designation for his hometown (cf. Micah 1:1). However, there are four different theories to identify this place: (1) an unlikely Islamic tradition from the 16th century B.C. refers to the supposed tomb of Nahum at el-Qush near Mosul; (2) Jerome identified it as Elcesi (apparently modern el-Owl) in (3) according to others, it actually means "Nahum's people"; (4) the theory favored by many identifies Elkosh with Elkesei, who according to Pseudo-Epiphanius was close to "Begabar".

Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (39)

A pedestal from Nineveh with mythical creatures (c. 2250 BC). Nahum prophesied against Nineveh, the capital of the Assyrian Empire.

in Simeon's territory. Begabar or Beth Gabre is modern Beit Jibrin (ancient Eleutheropolis) in which internal clues not far removed from the text suggest that the author lived somewhere in Judah (Nah. 1:15; cf. Raven, Young, Archer et al. ).

v.In the first half of the VII century BC. v. the international scene was dominated by Assyria. (669 – 626), son of (680 – 669), played an important role in international affairs. He conquered Egypt in the first year of his reign (669) and repeated his victory in 663 (or 661). Some scholars apply the reference to Nah. 3:8-10 on this occasion. Little is known about the latter part of Ashurbanipal's reign. His country was surrounded by powerful enemies: those of the N, the Medes in the E (see, and the Chaldeans in the S (see Egypt had already regained its independence (645). The time of the fall of Assyria was near. In 612 , Nineveh was conquered by the Medes and Chaldeans conquered and destroyed, and in 609 the mighty Assyrian empire disappeared from the map.

The internal situation of Judah was determined by the long reign of (c. 696-641). As a vassal of Assyria (cf. the corresponding inscriptions 291, 294, 295) he introduced into Judah the official cult of the Assyrians (cf. 2 Kings 21, 1-18; 23, 8-9; 2 Chr 33, 3). ), along with a whole range of pagan practices. He was later captured (2 Chronicles 33:11) and taken back to Jerusalem, where he atoned for his sins and tried to undo his evil deeds (2 Chronicles 33:10-13, 15-17). His son (641-639) "did evil in the eyes of the (2 Kings 21:20). However, during the reign of (639-609) pagan worship was abolished, Assyrian sovereignty ended, and the Reformation began. It even extended to the territory of Israel (2 Kings 23:15-20; 2 Chronicles 34:6-7).

VI. canonicidad miThe canonicity of the book has never been seriously questioned. He ranked in the same order in the Palestinian and Alexandrian canons. See Old Testament Canon. Furthermore, Nahum was evidently a valuable book in (cf. G. L. Doudna,4T pez Name: AND Critical edition[2001]). Apart from minor translation difficulties (e.g., Nah. 1:10, 12; 2:7-8), the text of Nahum is generally well preserved. Several changes in RSV are unnecessary (eg, 1:8; 2:3). Note that 1:15-2:13 in the English Bible corresponds to 2:1-14 in the Hebrew.

VIII.The book can be divided as follows:

A. The title (Na. 1:1) characterizes the prophecy as a charge or oracle about Nineveh.

B. In an opening statement (1:2-8), Nahum describes God's power and patience, his wrath against his enemies, and his kindness to those who take refuge in him. The divine determination to destroy Nineveh (v. 8) is implied.

C. The prophecy of the fall of Nineveh because of its sins is intended to comfort Judah (1:9-15).

D. The next section (2:1-13; Heb. 2:2-14) graphically describes the conquest of Nineveh. Provisions to defend the city against the instrument of destruction (2:1-5) will be in vain. The city is flooded (2:6), its people captured (2:7-8), and its treasures looted (2:9). Terrible fear will prevail (2:10) and Nineveh, that self-assured lion's den (2:11-13), will be destroyed.

E. In ch. 3 the fall of Nineveh is announced again and described in very poetic language. The murderous city (3:1) is conquered by God's instrument of judgment (3:2, 3). Because this city acted like a harlot, it is treated as such (3:4-7). It will fare no better than the powerful and well-fortified Thebes in Egypt, which fell to a bloody defeat (3:8-10). Nineveh's defenses will be in vain (3:11-14). His bands of merchants and military leaders will leave the doomed city (3:16-17). Its inhabitants will be scattered and never gathered again (3:18). To universal applause, Nineveh will disappear forever (3:19).

VIII. Theology.Some scholars mistakenly ignore the religious significance of Nahum's prophecy, arguing that the prophet was "filled with hatred for foreign oppressors." The allusion to Naum's supposedly chauvinistic attitude and his concern for the sins of foreign nations is highly subjective. His prophecy was primarily concerned with "comfort" for God's people then subject to the Assyrians. Judah's affliction (Na 1:12) presupposes his sin, and deliverance from Assyrian slavery (1:13) must be seen as an act of God's mercy (2:2).

The main point, however, is that this prophecy has its roots in the prehistory of divine revelation (compare Nah. 1:2-3a with Ex. 20:5; 34:7; Num. 14:18; Nah. 1 :4 with Psalm 18:16; 104:7; Nah 2:1 with Is 52:7 and Nah 3:7 with Is 51:19). In Nahum's prophecy, the story of God's judgments in relation to Assyria (cf. Isa. 10:5-19; 14:24-27; 17:12-14; 18:4-6; 29:5- 8; 30:27-33; 31:5-9; 33; 37:6-7, 21-35) reaches its climax. At the same time, Nahum's prophecy is linked to the history of later revelation, deepening the contrast between Assyria and Judah, to present the world power as an enemy of God and his kingdom. This is particularly evident in the description of Nineveh as a harlot, a figure that in turn is reflected in the visions of Rev. 17:1, 2, 15, 18; 18:23. In the proclamation of judgment on this enemy, God's people are "comforted."

(Important comments are by O. Happel,What tripe do prophets Nahum[1902]; J.M.P. Smith et al.,AND Critical mi exegetical commentary a micah, Zephaniah, naum, Habak-kuk, Obadiah miIStGH [1911]; W. A. ​​Maier,Die tripe Von Name: AND commentary[1959]; RL Smith, WBC 32 [1984]; OP Robertson,Die books Von naum, habakkuk, miNICOT [1990]; RD Patterson,naum, habakkuk, ZEPHONIA[1991]; J. J. M. Roberts,naum, habakkuk, miOTL [1991]; T. Longman III emDie irrelevant Prophets: em exegetical mi exhibitionedited by T. McComiskey [1992-98], 2:765-89; K. Spronk,Nahum[1997]; KL Barker y W. Bailey,micah, naum, habakkuk,NAC 20 [1998]; J. K. Bruckner,Jona, naum, habakkuk,NIVAC [2004]; H.-J. Fabry,Nahum translated miHKAT [2006]. See also P. Haupt onJBL26 [1907]: 1 – 53; C. Goslinga,Nahum oracle in exchange of Nineveh[1923]; P. Humbert emMagazine history et Von Philosophy nuns12 [1932]: 1ss.; A.Haldarstudies no a tripe Von Nahum[1947]; KK Cathcart,Nahum no a Hell Von northwest track[1973]; and the bibliography compiled by W. E. Mills,Nahum-Malachi[2002].)


born(Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (40)). One of Addi's descendants who agreed to keep out his foreign wives in the period of (1 Ezra 9:31); the parallel list (Ezra 10:30) differs significantly, but it is often assumed that Naidus could agree with it

This English noun is used to represent various Hebrew terms such aslose H5021(1 Chronicles 22:3a). Carpenter's and carpenter's nails were widespread since ancient times and differed little in size and shape from those in use today. Usually made of bronze or iron, they were forged by hand and tapered more gradually than today's machined nails. Nails with gold or silver heads used for decorative purposes have been found. There are six different words used for nails in the Bible.

In the pagan sense of protecting the human finger, the Hebrew has the termopen mouthIn the ANE, women leave their bodies unattended during the mourning period, sometimes for up to a year. The end of mourning was marked by hairstyle and nail trim. The captive woman had a month to mourn her separation from her people (Deuteronomy 21:12). So, to signify the end of her mourning and perhaps a respite from her paganism, she trimmed her nails, dressed up, and joined the community of Israel.

In the NT, "nail" is translated into the Greekon icewhich occurs only once in connection with the iron spikes used in the CRUCIFIXION of Jesus (John 20:25; but cf. verbproselytizing G4669in Colossians 2:14). These large nails have been found since Roman times.

personal computer

NaimNaim (Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (41)During his great ministry in Galilee, Jesus traveled about 25 miles after healing the Roman slave. He went to a city called Nain (Luke 7:11-17). Approaching the city, he met the funeral procession of a widow's son, apparently a well-known person, as the procession consisted of a large crowd from the city. Moved by the desolation of the widow, Jesus miraculously raised the young man to life, to the astonishment and gratitude of the entire city and surrounding territory. Lucas is the only evangelist to report this episode.

About 6.5 km. SE near Kefar Yeladim is an Unidentified modern town with an NT city. The village today is a Muslim settlement. It is located at the foot of the lower N slope of Cerro del Monte (at the northern end of the Cerro del Monte plain). It is fascinating that on the S side of the same hill is the Old Testament city, where a child was also created for life (2 Kings 4: 8 – 37) No No, a small chapel built by the Franciscans in 1880, supposedly on the foundations of an ancient sanctuary, marks the site of one of the most moving scenes in the life of Jesus: the resurrection. of the child Jesus, son of the widow.

JOSEPH 4.9.4-5) mentions a town called Nain that a revolutionary named Simon fortified to try to take over the Jews shortly after Galba's death in AD 69. It is not the town Lucas is referring to. 7:11.


naioteNo (Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (42)but this isChapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (43), probably. be craftyChapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (44), and in 1 Sam. 20:1 many, including Leningradensis, have the common nounChapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (45), which is the preferred form for 2:679, meaning "pasture, church"). A place to which he fled (1 Sam. 19:18-20:1). When Saul went there, “the Spirit of God came upon him, and he prophesied until he came to Naioth. He took off his clothes and also prophesied in the presence of Samuel ”(19: 23-24a). However, the location is unknown, and many believe the word is not a proper name, but a common noun translated as "camps" or something similar (cf. P. K. McCarter, Jr.,UEAB 8 [1980], 328). Since he lived in Rama (modern er-Ram, about 5 miles north of Jerusalem), "the camps/dwellings in Rama" are thought by some to describe Samuel's abode and his school of prophets (verse 20). .

R. L.

The first use of the in the Bible gives an idea of ​​the meaning in many other contexts: "The man and his wife were naked, and were not ashamed" (Gen. 2:25). In the unfallen state, the discovery of the body would not provoke the feeling of SHAME at their nakedness is vividly illustrated in the account of their drunkenness, and their children's reaction to their subsequent exposure (Genesis 9:20-23) Living together (Lev. 18:6 et al.).

The conditionsnominakednessThey are used figuratively in many ways. "To be naked" can mean not to be completely covered (John 21:7; Gk.gymseither destitute (Job 22:6) or impoverished (Gen 42:9). uses the word to indicate the transience of earthly possessions (Job 1:21). The expression "nakedness of the earth" (Genesis 42:9 NRSV) indicates exposure and powerlessness. The church's spiritual condition was "wretched, miserable, poor, blind, and naked" (Rev. 3:17), a graphic characterization of its utter bankruptcy.


Afternajakon TNIV-Form von

The first and most important experience a newborn Hebrew had was to be given a name. Just as God named "day" and "night," "seas" and so on (Genesis 1:3-10) and even all the stars (Isa. 40:26) in His CREATION, He also gave the creature, created to his image, that high privilege of naming each of the beasts (Genesis 2:20) and each of his children (Genesis 4:1, 2, 26).

• Terminology

• Hebrew

• Greek

• Biblical Onomatology

• Names of people

•Names of places

•Name I'm OT

• The nomenclature

• Change a name

•The meaning of a name

•Nombre no NT

• Name and personality

• Name and authority

• Name and reputation

• The name of Christ

UE.In the OT, "name" is usually the Hebrew translationIs H9005and AramaicNoisewhich occur more than 770 times. the greekOnoma G3950(It is used to translate in the LXX and occurs nearly 200 times in the NT. There are a few related words discussed below, but the statistical data for this concept is truly impressive, demonstrating its importance in the Bible.

AND. Hebrew.In 1872 Redslob argued (at 751-56).Iswas derived from the root "to be tall" and therefore its basic meaning was height and then (1) a monument (Gen. 11:4; 2 Sam. 8:13; Isa. 55:13) or mausoleum (Isa. 56:5) and (2) Excellence or Majesty (Ps 54:1). However P. Lagardenear To die I am Arameo, Arabica mi hebrew habitual Education a scheduled appointment[1889], 160) y W. R. Smithmi Before no Earlynew ed. [1903], 248–49) defended the Arabic root "mark or mark", stating thatIsoriginally meant a "character" or "token". The original meaning of our root is uncertain, but the development of the word encompasses both sets of ideas within its range of meanings.

prepositional combinations withIsthey are instructive. The expression "call on (the) name" (the preposition occurs eighteen times. Isaiah describes a future day in an uninhabited Jerusalem, when seven women will ask a man, "let us be called by name only," that is, the protection of the man and possession as signified by his name (Isaiah 4:1). In 2 Samuel 12:28 it speaks of calling his name upon a conquered city. (Isaiah 63:19) Other prepositions used with the noun are "to, for" ( more than 50 times, usually referring to the name of Yahweh), "in" (about 130 times), "in" (about 130 times),MinimumPartitive and comparative (3 times), "for" (16 times), "as" (7 times), and once "because of" (cf. H. Bietenhard on 5:252-53).

A less common noun isI see"memory, memory", which is sometimes used in conjunction withIs(cf. Exodus 3:15; Job 18:17; Prov. 10:7; Isa. 26:8) and, in some cases, is correctly translated "name" (eg, Psalms 30:4; 97 :12). The verbayer"Remember" appears in the Hiphil stem as a fixed formula with the nounIsas a direct object six times (Exodus 20:24; 24:21; 2 Sam. 18:18; Psalm 45:17; Isaiah 26:13; 49:1), and in four other cases it appears with the prepositionSu-and the noun. These usages have led scholars such as B. Jacob, J. Begrich, and B.S. Childs to interpret the hyphilic of this verb as the word for "insult", an act of expression rather than an act of recollection. as in the qal tribe.

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Roman marble ashtray in the shape of an ancient tomb with inscription (1st century AD). The names of the deceased are often kept as keepsakes in graves and monuments.

(The etymology of the rootshortcutstill unresolved, although great efforts have been made to resolve the issue. Gesenius's first edition of hisDictionary of Synonymsrepresented the greatest consensus so far in associating it with the nounayer"masculine" since masculine was seen as the gender through which the memory of parents and ancestors was preserved. Gesenius changed this opinion in later editions of the Lexicon of him, arguing that the basic idea was burning or burning, and this gave rise to the noun used in reference to him.a member macho.Memory, according to this theory, was a penetration or fixation in the mind. This theory and others have failed due to a lack of positive evidence.)

B. Greek.Consistently translates HebrewIsand AramaicNoisewith the Greek "name". This Greek term was also used to translate other Hebrew words (eg, Genesis 21:23; Numbers 14:15; Joshua 6:27), includingI see(Deuteronomy 25:19). So the LXX sometimes addsOnomabefore mention of a person or place name for stylistic reasons (eg, Genesis 21:31; 1 Chronicles 2:1). For the Hebrew term, he generally prefers Greek terms meaning "remembrance, recollection."G3644, same g3647, smile

The NT authors usedOnomasimilar to how the Hebrews used their words for "name". Thus a name is a "call" (Mark 6:14; Philippians 2:9; Revelation 3:1); the "authority" and "power" by which one acts (Matthew 7:22; Mark 9:39; Acts 4:7); the "character" of the possessor of it (Matthew 6:9; John 12:38); the "complete system of divine doctrine," the "content of revelation," or "divine truth" (John 17:16, 26; Hebrews 2:12, citing Psalm 22:22); the "rank" or "rank" (as in a prophet, Matthew 10:41); and plural "people, people" (Acts 1:15; Revelation 3:14; 11:13; Acts 18:15).

The prepositional combinations are discussed in more detail below, but again show more of the same Semitic influence as the typical classical meanings. The dative form ofOnomameetsno(40 times) andepi(at least 14 times). These forms are used almost as a formula for "by the authority of" or "in the power of" God or Jesus Christ. The genitive (3 times) and the accusative (4 times) meet the preposition, the former denoting the means and agency for the results described, while the latter has the name as the reason and foundation on which the action rests. So it seemseswith the accusative it usually works likefor girls"in view of, in thought of, in favor of, or in favor of." Some of the other prepositions areJoke(Mateo 19:29; Lucas 21:12);Periwith the genitive (Acts 8:12);Benefitswith the accusative (Acts 26:9); Yhyperwith the genitive (Acts 5:41; Romans 1:5).

II. BiblicalNeither the unscientific etymologies of Plato and Aristotle nor the more systematic but still speculative puns offer a solid foundation for the study of Biblical names (however, they were effective in setting the tone for some fifteen centuries). The one led by Zeno and Chrysippus developed a whole theory of language, but still involved etymology as a means of displaying moral, religious, and metaphysical truth in words.

With the advent of academic and comparative Semitic lexicography and grammar, important contributions to the subject began to appear (for example, M. Hiller,onomastic pious[1706]); J.Simon,onomastic of the old Testament[1741] mionomastic Novi Testament[1762]; E. Nestlé,To die Israelite Own names[1876]; gb pig,studies no hebrew Correct Names[1898]; and some others, especially M. Noth,To die Israelite personal names I am chart a common semite naming[1928]). During the 20th century, such studies were supplemented by detailed comparisons between Hebrew and other Semitic languages ​​(for example, J.J. Stamm,To die acadisco naming[1939]; IJ Gelb et al.,What personally Names[1943]; H. B. Huffmon,Amoritero personally Names no a Mari Text[1965]; F. Grondahl,To die personal names a Text the end Ugarit[1967]; and many others). There are also Jewish names from the 5th century BC. v. Aramaic Papyri of the Epistles and the Samaritans However, some questions remain, and not all experts accept all the meanings attributed to the names listed below.

AND. Names Von People.The Hebrews were a people of the same name; That is, each child was given a single name at birth, with no last name or middle name. When a distinction was needed, the person could be easily identified by adding his father's name and the name of another ancestor in ascending order as the occasion required. Most scholars classify Hebrew names according to their formation: simple and compound.

1. SimplyThese are the most difficult since there is only one element and it is generally a being, object, description or circumstance known to contemporaries in this enigmatic form but not so easy for us to know. Single-element names are common, that is, they are shortened forms of names originally composed of more than one element (see 4:1017-18; however, as J.D. Fowler pointed out,theophoric personally Names no alternative hebrew[1988], 149, this term is not the most appropriate as it technically refers to diminutives or endearment names.) A simple noun can be an adjective or an abbreviation of a compound noun (omitting the divine element in some cases, or the kinship noun in other cases), or a verb in the third person singular (for example, Nathan, "he gave" Sometimes an element is simply replaced by an ending on the remaining element, and these abbreviated and apocopiated forms are convert to simple names.

and.Nature NamesThere are three groups of names for nature: (1) animal, (2) plant, and (3) meteorology. The first group is represented by twenty-two pre-exilic southern names, some of the best known being: Deborah (bee), Rachel (sheep), Caleb (dog), Huldah (weasel), Achbor (rat), Shaphan rock). ), Jonah (dove) and Tola (worm). In addition to these examples of Hebrew animal names, there are eleven foreign names in the OT, including Zeeb (wolf), Eglah (calf), Oreb (raven), Hamor (donkey), Jael (ibex), Nahash (snake), Efer (young gazelle) and Sephora (bird lady). However, the names of the plants are rarer. Examples of this class are Tamar (date palm), Hadassah (myrtle), Elon (oak), Zethan (olive), Rimmon (pomegranate); in Apocrypha and NT, Susanna (lily).

Although one cannot dogmatically state what was intended in each case, it is possible to compare these names with a multitude of animal and plant names from other ancient ACO nomenclature lists. It must be said that a theory as valid as the totem theory for which there is some support is the idea of ​​affection and tenderness as a reason for using these names; This can be the case especially when small animals, though unclean, are used as names!

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People in the Bible are sometimes named after animals. For example, the name Rachel means 'sheep'.

Some meteorological names are Barak (lightning), Samson (little sun) and Nogah (dawn). This class may be derived entirely from pagan theophores or slight modifications thereof.

b.Physically Features.These few names fall easily into four categories: (1) color, (2) size, (3) flaws and (4) gender. Some examples are: Laban and Libni (white), Zohar (reddish-white), Haruz (yellow), Edom (red), Phinehas (bronze Nubian), Hakatan (small), Korah and Kareah (bald), Heresh (stupid). ) , Ikkesh (twisted), Gareb (weird), Gideon (mutilated?), Paseah (staggering) and Geber (male).

C.circumstances no Birthday.Often the name says something about (1) the time of birth, (2) the place of birth, (3) the order of birth, and (4) the events of birth. Some examples are: Haggai and Haggith (holiday, that is, born at the time of the festival), Shabbethai (sabbatical, that is, born on Saturday), Judith and Jehudi (Jew or Jewish, perhaps originally from Judah), Cushi (Ethiopian ), Beker (firstborn), Yathom and Yathomah (fatherless, orphaned), Azubah (abandoned, perhaps by mother at birth?), and Thomas (twin).

that is, there are some additional simple names that refer to the qualities of the person, such as Nabal (fool) and Naomi (perhaps nice), or to various objects, such as Penina (corals), Rebekah (rope for tying sheep), Rizpah ( And that). , bakbuk (jug) and acsah (ankle bracelets). Other nouns in this category are active or passive participles, such as Saul (asked), Baruch (blessed), Menachem (comforter); Names with small (love) endings or such as Nahshon (little snake), Samson (little sun); Names ending in or for property or Gentiles or abbreviations like Mordecai (follower of Marduk), Omri; and those ending in Gera (guest).

2. ConnectionThis class of names far exceeds the previous class. Particularly numerous are the theophoric names, that is, names that expressly mention the deity. OT compound nouns consist of two or more independent words. The relationship between these words can be: (1) two nouns functioning as nominative and genitive, the so-called construction state; and (2) a complete game. In the compound construction, the first element usually ends in This is usually seen as a holdover from the old case-ending system, but occasionally indicates the presence of the first-person singular suffix "mi". Occasionally a preposition may appear before this noun in the construction, for example, Bezalel (in the shadow of God). Sentence names are common in Semitic languages, and Hebrew has its share. Some that come quickly to mind are the names of Isaiah's sons, Shear-Jashub (the rest will return) and Maher-Shalal-Hash-Baz (the plunder hastened, the spoil hastened), and the sons of Hosea, Lo-Ruhamah (she found without mercy) and Lo-Ammi (he is not my people). The name Hephzibah (my joy is in her, 2 Kings 21:1; Isaiah 62:4) also exemplifies this usage.

and.theophorus NamesThese names are usually names of sentences formed with the divine names or Yahweh (see I. The sentence can appear with a nominal predicate indicating trust, such as Joel (Yahweh is God), or with a verbal predicate, for example, B. In the perfect tense, since the subject can appear either at the beginning or at the end (unlike Nathanael and Elnathan), it is often difficult to decide which is the subject and the predicate, especially when the MT vocalization may be objectionable with a particular noun. Some verbs are in the past tense or jussive past tense and can therefore express a wish or desire, such as Jehoiakim (may the Lord establish). Some authorities even claim to find an imperative form of the verb in these nouns (for example, Hosea, save!), but this is not clear.

Most of these compounds contain the element Lord at the beginning or end of the name. appears asmioof(Eng. Jeho-, Jo-) in the first position, andYes actuallyomi(Eng. -iah, -jah) second. Grayno hebrew Correct149) counted 156 different names of more than 500 people with this OT divine name. The Elephantine papyri show this same high frequency, with up to 170 Jews bearing a compound name of Yahweh. Second in number of occurrences is the compound name El. The OT has 135 compound names in the form of El, according to Gray (pp. 163-65), of which 113 are Hebrew personal (or tribal) names.

The meanings of these theophoric names cover almost the entire range of God's nature, person, gifts, and works to man. T. Nöldeke, in his monumental article "Names" inencyclopedia Biblical(1902) organizes these meanings according to the following groups: the sovereignty of God - he is just, he reigns, he judges, he is possessor, he is lord; The gifts of God: he gives, multiplies, opens the womb, releases; The goodness of God - blesses, has mercy, loves, helps, saves, is good, gives charity, is with people; God's creative ability - He makes, builds, fixes, fixes, performs; The knowledge of God - he remembers, knows, weighs, sees; God's salvation: he releases, comforts, heals, redeems, preserves, preserves, hides; The power of God-he sustains, he is strong, he is a refuge, he strengthens; The immanence of God - He hears, answers, speaks, swears, promises; and the nature and attributes of God: he is great, perfect, tall, glorious, alive, incomparable, who dwells, who comes, who passes, who reaches, who rejoices, who strikes down, who thunders, who rises, who rejoices, it is light, it is fire. This is just one example of the many roots and ideas. (For a more complete and recent study see J.D. Fowler,theophoric personally Names no alternative hebrew[1988]; cf. also 4:1018-19.)

b.relationship NamesThe ties of kinship are and The most important are the first two: the elementAb(yo)it appears in thirty-one names, of which three are foreign names, four are surnames, and the remaining twenty-four represent forty-one individuals (Gray, 26).Ah(s)it appears in twenty-six names, five of which are foreigners or relatives, and twenty-one representing thirty-three Israelites (ibid., 37). The other names are even rarer, each representing around a dozen specimens. Examples of kinship names are and

C.domination NamesThese names contain nouns that denote the sovereignty of the one mentioned in the name and are therefore of great value in determining the religious character of Israel at different periods of history. They bear the name of Melech = king; Adoni=Lord; y Baal = owner (eg, and These forms are very common in other Semitic languages, especially Phoenician and Punic, but the OT has fourteen examples of the names Melech and even fewer examples of the other two forms: twelve names of Baal, of which two are one Edomite and one Phoenician, and nine names of Adoni, two of which are Canaanite. The reason now seems evident in the light of the comparative onomastics of Phoenicia, Ugarit, and Assyria: the names were decidedly Canaanite in origin and formation.

B. Names Von put.The oddity of the prayer names and the ambiguity of many pre-Israelite place names make their explanation difficult. Some of these ambiguities have now been removed by Egyptian name lists, but the issue often remains confused, as many places have only a simple name, and compound names are mostly in a genital relationship.

1. DescriptiveOften a place is named after a topographical feature for which the Hebrew has a rich vocabulary. This may include references to (1) height: Rama, Ramot, Ruma (height), Geba, Gabaa or Gibeon (hill), Shechem (shoulder or ridge), and Sela (cliff); (2) Location: Sharon (plain), Mizpah (watchtower) and Bitron (gorge); (3) the presence or absence of water: in the names composed of En (spring), Beer (spring), Me (water), Gihon or Giah (spring), Zion (without water), and Abel (meadow); (4) the color and beauty of the place: Lebanon (white), Adummin (reddish or red), Kidron (very black), Zalmon (dark), Jarkon (yellow), Carmel (garden), Shapir or Shepherd (beautiful) and Tirzah (please); (5) the nature of the land: Argob (land rich in soil), Arabah (desert, and Jabez or Horeb (dry); and (6) the size, products, or industries of the place: Zoar (small), Rabbath (large). , or waste land), Bozkath (volcanic plateau), Bezer or Bozrah (fortified place), Gat (press), Kir (wall) and Hazor, Quiriat or Ir (city). Not all of the above names are absolutely certain, but this seems to be the best documented meaning.

2. NatureG. B. Gray's work on animal names remained essentially unchanged. He discovered that out of approximately 100 animal names, 33 (23 of them in Hebrew) are place names, 34 (23 in Hebrew) clan names, and 33 (22 in Hebrew) personal names; all the rest are foreigners 97). Most animal names come from S (at least 47 of 67 place and tribal names), and 22 tribal and individual animal names come from foreigners.

Some of the 33 place names are: Aijalon (deer), Arad (wild donkey), Beth Car (lamb), Eglon (calf), Ephron (gazelle), En Gedi (fountain of the goat), Laish (lion), Zeboim (hyena). ), Parah (Cow), Hazar Susah (City of the Horse), Ir Nahash (City of the Snake), Beth Hoglah (House of the Partridge), Zorah (Wasp) and Shaalbim (Fox). There are also names of plants, trees and shrubs: Abel Shittim (acacia meadow), Beth Tappuah (apple tree house), Tamar or Baal-Tamar (date palm), Elah, Eloth, Elim or Elon (oak or terebinth), Rimmon (pomegranate), Dilan (cucumber), Eshcol, Abel Keramim or Beth Hakkerem (vine) and Luz (almond). (See more Y. Elitsur,alternative ort Names no a Sacred Tierra[2004]; E. Gass,To die put names do judge book no historic mi editorial perspective[2005]; 6:601-5, sv. "Place Names and Toponymy").

third Name no aEssential to the nature, existence, and character of God is his name; the same goes for humans. A person who focuses on a name, such as his name, was a "fool"; 1 Saturday 25:25).

AND. Die but Von and Name.Both people and places are given names to which meaning is assigned.

1. for andNormally, the first experience a newborn has is naming. Only in later times was this event retained until the eighth day after birth, when the boy was circumcised (Luke 1:59; 2:21; but the OT makes no reference to this custom). Hebrew has a fixed phrase or formula for "to name" or "to call his name": it consists of the verb "to call") with the direct objectšĕm(“Name”, sometimes preceded by a direct object sign) and the preposition inseparablelĕ-before the person, place or thing. This naming expression must be distinguished from the formula "to point to a name" (with the verbsimulatorcf. 2 Kings. 17:34; no 9:7), which is used in the sense of naming.

The AT lists about 1400 different names. In some forty-six cases, the role played by the parents in the naming of the child is mentioned: in twenty-eight cases, the child received the name of the mother (eg, Gen 4,25; 16,11; 19, 37-38; 20:35; 30:6, 8, 11, 13, 18, 20, 24, 29; 1 Sam. 1:20), but the father participated and named the child in eighteen places (eg. , Gen. 5:3; 16:15; 17:19; 21:2; 1 Chronicles 7:23; Job 42:14; Isaiah 6:3; Hosea 1:4, 6, 9). A few cases are mentioned where someone other than the mother or father named the child: Pharaoh's daughter (Exodus 2:10), Naomi's neighbors (Ruth 4:17), and the prophet Nathan (2 Samuel 12: 25). .

Ideally, the name was either descriptive of the parents' wishes or prescient of the personality that someone with that name would manifest. These kinds of names are particularly evident when people are renamed, such as when they are given the new name (Genesis 35:10). They are an integral part of one's character and fortune. Other names are given for random reasons or because of a special circumstance accompanying the birth of a child: when she died in childbirth, she called her son "the son of my sorrow" (Genesis 35:18); as an "alien resident" in a foreign land, she named her son (Exodus 2:22).

Often the AT gives names and then writes the name to change the name. Usually this takes the form of assonances or similar-sounding words or ideas that emphasize a specific point. Many classify these names as folkloric or popular etymologies, but it is not necessary to resort to this explanation. The custom of punning names can also be seen in ancient Egypt; for example, the Westcar Papyrus gives the names of all triplets born to a priest's wife. These three children are destined for the kingship of Egypt and each, according to the story, ascended the throne when the fifth dynasty begins, but the interesting feature, echoed elsewhere, is that each is given his name at birth, accompanied by a witty statement. that plays with the sound or the idea of ​​that name. The Hebrew prophets exemplify this love of puns and puns (Micah 1:10-15; Jeremiah 1:11-12; Hosea 1:4-5 et al.). Taking all proper names together, there are seventy-nine passages in which a name is mentioned and some specific explanation, comment, or pun associated with the name is given (see A. F. Key onJBL83 [1964]: 55 – 59).

There seems to be evidence that patronymics existed in Israel earlier than previously thought. Indeed, children in Christ's day were named after an ancestor, usually a grandparent, and so it continued in all other generations. In Luke 1:59-61, the relatives of Elizabeth and Zacharias are surprised that they named their son, because "there is none among their relatives who has that name." Phoenician and Punic inscriptions contain many such examples. Biblical examples are as follows: (1) Abiathar - Ahimelech - Abiathar II - Ahimelech II (1 Sam. 21:1; 22:9, 22; 2 Sam. 8:17); (2) Maacah, the mother of Absalom and later the name of Rehoboam's wife (2 Sam. 3:3; 1 Kings 15:2); (3) Tamar, Absalom's sister and later the name of Absalom's daughter (2 Sam. 13:1; 14:27); (4) Mephibosheth, Saul's grandson through Jonathan and later the name of Saul's son through his concubine Rizpah (2 Sam. 21:7-8); and (5) Ahaziah (1 Kings 22:40; 2 Kings 8:16-18, 26).

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2. for andMany of the place names in Canaan predate Israelite contact or occupation of that land. The main evidence for this claim comes from the letters of the kings of the city-states of Canaan to Egypt, the Karnak Inscription of III, the two military expeditions of Amenhotep II, and the lists of Seti I, II, and Thutmose III alone, which is the most detailed information on the land of Canaan, there is evidence of about fifty place names found in the OT in a list that extends to 119 names in two copies and 350 in a third.

The OT attributes the names of some of these places to the hero of the same name who established or conquered the region (Gen. 4:17 [cf. 10:2-7 et al.]; Num. 32:42; Deut. 3: 14; Joshua 19:47). As he was about to conquer the Ammonite capital, he warned against conquering the city so as not to do so and the city would be named after him (2 Sam. 12:28). So shouting his name over a place meant owning that city.

B. Die change Von and Name.There are about a dozen examples of AT name changes. Each marked the introduction of a new relationship, a new character quality, a new phase in life, and perhaps a new calling. Just as the NEC monarchs took possession of a new name, expressing a new era or policy, God renamed his men and women as they introduced new aspects of God's promise. So it was for Abram, whose name became Abraham (Genesis 17:5), and for Sarai, who became Sarah (Genesis 17:15). Other examples are: God renamed Jacob Israel (Gen 32:28; 35:10); Pharaoh renamed Joseph Zafenat-Panea (Genesis 41:45); Moses changed Hosea for Joshua (Numbers 13:16); Pharaoh Neco changed Eliakim's name to Jehoiakim (2 Kings 23:34); Nebuchadnezzar exchanged Mattaniah for Zedekiah (2 Kings 24:17); and the Babylonian prince of the eunuchs renamed Daniel, Hananías, Misael and Azarías Beltsasar, Sadrac, Mesac and Abed-negotiation, respectively (Daniel 1:7). In any case, a change of position is expressed; be it an elevation to a new dignity or a reduction in dependency. These examples also recall the “new name” that will be given to Jerusalem at its future restoration (Isa. 62:2) and the fact that God will give His servants “another name” (Isa. 65:15; “new name” ”), which announces the corresponding change of dignity. (See below 4:1011–17, s.v. "Names, doubles".)

C. Die sense Von and Name.As already indicated in some of the previous discussions, the name is more than the distinctive title of God or a person. The people of Israel were aware of the meaning that can be given to a name, and therefore the use of the concept shows this wide range of meanings.

1. Die Name miIt seems that the closest Hebrew term to our modern Western concept of "personality" (i.e., the overall picture of a person's organized behavior) is "on here,"Surname." Thus, the sum of the internal and external behaviors of a person was summed up in her name. In this way glory could be given to the person of God (Psalm 5:11; 7:17). Knowing a person's name was equivalent to knowing that person's nature: "Those who know your name will trust in you" (Psalm 9:10; 91:14).

The name change meant a change in character and mission, hence the dozen or so examples mentioned above. The name change not only indicates the close association of the name with the person and his personality, but that the person was so closely associated with his name that "cutting off the name" was tantamount to destroying the person or place (1 Sam. 24). . . :twenty-one; 2 Kings 14:27; Ps 83:4; Isa 14:22; Zeph 1:4). Existence in his earthly form was associated with his name. With the destruction of the name, the person practically received the death blow. What else does a person really have besides his personality?

This connection is best seen in the plural forms of the Hebrew and Greek words for "name", which could actually be translated as "people"; Acts 1:15; 6:15 p.m.; Apoc. 3:4; 11:13). Perhaps this was part of David's problem with the 2 Sam census. 24. Listing people's names was, in effect, placing men in captivity on military missions not expressly commanded by God.

The name, being the person, could also act and speak. Israel has often fought with all her might and done well as the representative of God's name. The name of God was more than an endorsement of the mission; it was the power, strength, courage, and presence of God himself. Thus Israel prospered because the name acted and prevailed (Ps 44:5; Mic 4:5; 5:3). The name of God can sustain, defend, hide and comfort the righteous and all who come to him (Ps 20:1; Pr 18:10). So I was speaking on your behalf. Often this expression meant to be a representative of God, but it also really meant that if someone dared to speak in the name of the Lord, it would be as if the person whose name was being used actually spoke (5.18:19; Jer. 26: 20; 44:16).

Even the names of the cities had an inherent personality to their names. For example, Jerusalem becomes "the city of righteousness" (Isaiah 1:26), "the city of (60:14), "my joy is in it" (62:4 NRSV), and "desired, the city no longer forsaken' (62:12) - new names for an ancient city, giving a new character and pattern of conduct.

2. Name miIf someone gives a name to another, he establishes a domain or ownership relationship with him. Already demonstrated in Eden that part ofphoto Dowho promised him subjection and dominion over all things on earth, naming the beasts (Gen 2:19-20; see image of). also (Genesis 1:5, 8, 10). The husband, in turn, calls his wife "wife" (Gn 2,23). The psalmist (Ps 8) cannot help contemplating the magnificence of humanity in this quality of sovereignty over the works of God's hands. The majesty of God's name (Psalm 8:1) is seen throughout the earth, and yet He has placed all these things under human authority!

Everything a man owns he names, whether it be a conquered city (2 Samuel 12:28), his country (Psalm 49:11), or his wives (Isa 4:1). Even children are important to one's name, because they keep the memory of that name (Ps 72:17). The entire institution of LEVIRATE marriage was for this one reason: to keep the family and family name alive in Israel (Deut. 25:5-10; Rut 4:5).

Likewise, Yahweh not only names the stars (Ps 147, 4; Is 43, 1), but also leaves His name on the Ark of the Covenant (2 Sam 6, 2), the Temple (Jer 7, 10). , Jerusalem (Jeremiah 25:29; Dan. 9:18), and Israel (2 Chronicles 7:14; Isaiah 63:19). God also promises to “put his name in the place” that he “chooses for his name to dwell in” (Deuteronomy 12:5, 11). This promise was made to the Israelites before they entered Canaan, and is but a continuation of the ancient promise that wherever God's name was honored, God would come and bless his people (Exodus 20:24 ). Contrary to the suggestion of G. von Rad (and all modern critics) that Deut. 12 presents the key issue of the centralization of the Temple in Jerusalem, this passage gives in a vague and anticipatory way (in relation to the actual location, either in Jerusalem or elsewhere) only the equation of the name of Yahweh and "the place" . “The authority to worship in this proclaimed place is found in the presence of the name. The idea of ​​protection is linked to the concept of authority. What God or man possesses, they must protect (eg, 1 Kings 8:43; 2 Chronicles 7:14; Jeremiah 7:10, 11, 14, 30; 14:9; 34:15; Dan. 9 ). :18, 19; Amos 9:12).

3. Name miNames can grow, be big, be mean, and receive honor and praise. This is simply an extension of the person and name equation. The name gains reputation, fame, prestige and fame of its own. In Genesis 6:4 the aristocracy ("the sons of God") took wives, and these "heroes" (or "mighty tyrants") took them away.Grandfathershe had sons who also became "men of repute" (lit. "men of renown"). Once again, the motivation of the tower builders was the acquisition of a name (Genesis 11:4). Later, Moses would face 250 princes of Israel who were "known" (literally, "appointed men", Numbers 16:2). The guests and witnesses at the wedding of Ruth and Boaz wished this couple God's blessings as they prayed that their family would do brave things and be "famous" (literally, "a name be called") in Bethlehem (Ruth 4:11 ). . Certain "mighty warriors" are described as "men of renown" ("men of renown," 1 Chr. 5:24). For the same reason, the "nameless" people were "notorious" men (NIV), notorious for their lack of (good) name (Job 30:8). Indeed, "a good name is more desirable than riches" (Prov. 22, 1) and "a good name is better than a good perfume" (Ecclesiastes 7, 1; cf. Cant. 1, 3). Even the way someone speaks and acts about a name affects that name's reputation and character, and in doing so, some give others a "bad name."

4. Die Name VonA great theological theme is found in the name of Yahweh. It appears most often with the inseparable Hebrew prepositions "for" and "in." One can "call", "speak", "prophesy", "bless", "minister", "walk" in the name of the Lord. See NAMES I

and.Die Epiphany Von a Name.Few passages in the Bible are as crucial to our modern understanding of the OT as Exodus. 6:2-3 The passage was indeed crucial for Moses and Israel, as it gave them a development of the patriarchal theology of the promises: God would now redeem his people from slavery in Egypt. In short, the modern question is whether God previously withheld his name Yahweh from the patriarchs to use the name as his own designation. Does he declare here that he is only now going to make himself known as Lord?

The correct answer to this question is to deny the patriarchs the knowledge of thissenseof the name of the Lord, not denying them the knowledge of his own name. The two verbs "to appear" and "to make known" are both in the niphal root, which conveys a reflexive sense here, i. H. "I have shown myself" and "I have not made myself known". the hebrew prepositionbbefore El Shaddai and the absence of any Hebrew prepositions before Yahweh is more crucial. An English translation will also require a preposition in the second case, and we believe that translations that consider both prepositions to have equal force are best. Although the Hebrew preposition usually means "in", its use is usually indicated in contexts like this.bettranslate as "as". The meaning is: "I showed myself to Abraham, Isaac and Jacobno a Character Von[with the attributes of] El Shaddai, butno a Character Vonmy name Yahweh, I have not made it known to them." The name plays an important role here: it reveals the character, qualities, attributes and essence of the name.

The accuracy of this interpretation can be verified by considering the question Moses asked earlier when God promised to be with him. He asked: "Suppose I go to the Israelites and say to them, 'The God of your fathers has sent me to you,' and they ask me, 'What is your name?' So what should I tell them?" Moses 3:13). As Martin Buber and others have pointed out, the interrogativebreast H4537("what?") must be distinguishedmi H4769("who?"). The latter only asks about the title or designation of a person, while the former, especially since it is associated with the word "name", raises the question of the character, qualities, power and abilities inherent in the name. His anticipated question was: "What does the 'God of our fathers' have to offer in a situation as complex and difficult as ours?" she will be there

b.Die They are Von Bom.Often the phrase "the name [of Yahweh]" and the name of Yahweh itself are used interchangeably (Deut. 28:58; Job 1:21; Psalm 18:49; 68:4; 74:18; 86:12 ; 92:1; Isaiah 25:1; 26:8; 48:9; 56:6; Ezekiel 20:44; Amos 2:7; Mal. 3:16). Sometimes "the name" functions almost as an apparition of Yahweh. The surest passage that leads to this conclusion is Exodus. 23:20-21 where God speaks of them

Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (48)

The covenant name of God YHWH (Heb.Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (49)) is written in some Jewish MSS using ancient Hebrew letters (see first line, second word from right).

ANGEL whom he sends before Israel, "my name is in him." Israel must beware of the angel and obey him, for "he will not forgive his rebellion." in Jesus. 30:27 what is generally attributed to Yahweh is attributed to his name. The name of the LORD comes from afar and burns with his anger, while his lips are angry and his tongue like a consuming fire! The name is then, like the angel of God (the Lord) or the GLORY of the Lord, the one who will be present for them and who has to be feared and obeyed as much as Yahweh himself, when in reality it is not Yahweh. . the same.

C.Die To teach Von Bom.Sometimes the name of God is used to denote the entire system of divine truths and teachings revealed in the Scriptures. The psalmist seems to have meant this when he wrote: "I will make your name known to my brothers" (Psalm 22:22; quoted in Hebrews 2:12). The messianic psalm refers to the life and doctrine of the promised one to come. When he arrived, he said, "I have made your name known to those you gave me" and "I have made [your name] known to them" (John 17:6, 26). Obviously, the proclamation of the name was the proclamation of the doctrine of God. Thus it was possible for people to live according to the doctrine ordained and approved by God: “Walk all nations / in the name of their gods; / in the name of / our God we walk forever and ever” (Micah 4:5).

d.Die theological Developing.G. de Radno Deuteronomy[1953], 37-44) sees the rise of a "name theology" as the distinctive contribution of the Deuteronomy movement, replacing the older "glory to the Lord theology" associated with the ark and cloud and fire phenomena. . But he is also (p. 38) familiar with passages like Exodus. 20:24, which appear earlier. Instead of saying with von Rad that the ideas pass from a crude concept of the material presence of Yahweh to a more refined tendency towards hypostasis, we believe that the concepts of the Ark of the Covenant, the angel, the face, the glory of God and the name of God are representative and pledge (Ernst) of the presence of the Lord. The idea of ​​development thus passes from a concept of identity to a concept of representation. For example, the name represents God's own presence in the temple; but while it is present there, it is not contained in that temple (Th. C. Vriezen,em contour Von alternative Testament theology[1958], 248).

(There are about a hundred verses illustrating the use ofOnomawhich are almost identical to those seen in the Hebrew. It also does not show any new features compared to AT. Its most common reference is to the name of God; otherwise, it does not have significant characteristics in the sense of this article. See 5:261-64, 266-67.)

4. Name no aIn giving examples of "names," the NT often quotes the OT, so the above discussion applies to this part of Scripture as well (Matthew 6:9; 12:31; 23:39; John 17:6; Acts 2:21; Romans 15:9; Hebrews 2:12). Some impressive examples can now be given.

AND. Name mi Personality."Name" appears again in the plural, meaning "people" (Acts 1:15; Revelation 3:4; 11:13). It also means the character or work that someone is doing or will do, like the name of EL (Lk. 1:13, 59-63) and of (meaning “Yahweh is salvation”) because “he will save his people from their sins”. ” (Mt 1,21). Jesus has "the name that is above all names" and "in the name of Jesus every knee should bow" (Phil.

2:9-10). A change of name meant a corresponding change in character, profession, or status. For example, Simon is changed to (Matthew 16:17-18); James and John are renamed "sons of thunder," men distinguished by bombastic tempers (Mark 3:17).

B. Name mi Authority.The name of Jesus is His authority, given to His disciples to perform miracles, preach or pray to the Father. When the question arises "in what name did you do this?", the answer always refers to the authority and power of Jesus (Mt. 7:22; Mk. 9:39; Lk. 24:47; Acts 4:7 ;16). :18; 19:17). That name had authority and power sufficient to justify sinners (Acts 10:43; 1 Corinthians 6:11) and forgive their sins (1 John 2:12).

C. Name mi Ruf.This usage is rare in the NT. The only references are Mark 6:14; Luke 6:22; Revelation 3:1; and perhaps Phil 2:9.

D. Die Name Von Cristo

1. Believe no aIn the Johannine Scriptures, the phrase "believe on his name" occurs five times (John 1:12; 2:23; 3:18; 1 John 3:23; 5:13). In two instances it is used in close parallel with faith in the Son of God, Jesus (John 3:16 with v. 18; 1 John 5:10 with v. 13). The name here is his person, and the belief in that name is not magic, but an acceptance or "reception" of his messianic person and mission, thus earning the right to enter into a new relationship with the heavenly Father (Jn. 1:12).

2. Baptism no aFour times Christian BAPTISM is performed in the name of Christ (Acts 2:38; 8:16; 10:48; 19:5), and twice it is simply "baptized into Christ" (Rom 6:3; Gal 3). . :27). In one case, it is done in "the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit" (Mt 28:19). "Baptism in his name" means, therefore, that the subject, through the confession of his "faith in his name", now experiences a real union with the name of God - that is, with God himself - whose external symbol is baptism. The fact that the three name persons share a common name immediately points to the unity and fullness of the Godhead, as well as the ministries and fellowship denoted and enjoyed by these 'name persons' of Baptism.

Three prepositions are used. In Acts 2:38,epipoints out that the reason or basis for baptism is “the name of Jesus Christ” (but also note the connection to FORGIVENESS). The other two prepositions areno(Acts 10:48) representing the SemitesI wasy means "[to do] on someone's behalf or on their authority", andes(Matthew 28:19; Acts 8:16; 19:5), representingfor girlsand means "relating to or pertaining to the name" in the final or causal sense. Baptism was then the beginning of discipleship with Christ.

3. sentence no aJesus taught his disciples to pray: "Hallowed be your name" (Mt 6,9; cf. Is 29,23; Ez 36,23). Furthermore, believers were to pray "in his name" (John 14:13-14; 15:16; 16:23, 26), which simply meant that they were to call on his name and thus acknowledge that Jesus was the Son of God. God of God. God's order. in the name of Jesus is a prayer that has the character and mind of Christ. as yes 5:16 says that fervent prayer wrought by the Holy Spirit is effective! This should not be a magic formula attached to prayers, but an acknowledgment of the person, character, and here especially the authority, purpose, and will found in that name. The unity of the Father and the Son in this name is recorded in John 14:13-14.

4. Wonderful no aWhen the disciples acted in the name of Jesus, i. H. in his power and his authority they found that demons and evil spirits were subject to that name (Mt 7,22; Lc 9,49; 10,17). ). This power extended to those outside the circle of disciples (Mark 9:38; 16:17). By this name men are healed and strengthened (Acts 3:6; 14:10). In Acts 4:7EnergymiNamethey are parallel terms, as in Psalm 54:1. Sick believers are anointed with oil in the name of the Lord (James 5:14). This name is not to be used as a "theurgical formula" (according to Conybeare), for only when the wearer of this name is united by faith and belief in this name does Jesus display the power of him. The Jewish exorcists use the correct formula but get the opposite results in Acts 19:13-16.

5. persecucion no aBelievers may be hated and persecuted "for his name's sake," that is, for his confession of Jesus Christ as Lord and Savior (Matthew 10:22; 19:29; 24:9; Mark 10:29 [here with the gospel]; 13:13; Luke 6:22; 21:12, 17; Acts 5:41; 9:16; 15:26; 3 John 7; cf. 1 Peter 4:14, 16).

6. proclamation no aThe content and theme of the message preached by Philip (Acts 8,12), Paul (Acts 9,27; Rom 1,15) and all the missionaries (3 Jn 7) was “the name of Jesus Christ. "Preaching by name (Luke 24:47), "carrying" by name (Acts 9:15), and exhorting by name (2 Thessalonians 3:6; 1 Corinthians 1:10; 5:4) all focus on the person , authority and message of Christ.

(In addition to the titles mentioned in the body of this article, see J. Pedersen,Israel: That is life mi2Bde. [1926-40], 1:245-59; J. A. Motyer,Die Epiphany Von a Divine Name[1959]; GT Manley,Die tripe Von a ley: studies no a Given Von Deuteronomy[1957], 33 – 34, 131 ss.; BS Childs,memory mi tradition no Israel[1962], 9-30; N. G. Cohen, "Jewish Names as Cultural Markers in Antiquity,"JSJ7 [1976]: 97-128; M. Garsiel,Biblical Names: AND Literary Learn Von Midrasch derivatives mi Word games[1991]; FH Nut,Die Learn Von Names: AND guide for a Beginning mi affairs[1992]; J Schwennen,Biblical Own names: divine, pro tonna- mi put names I am ancient Testament[nine hundred and ninety-five]; Y. Elisur,alternative ort Names no a Sacred Tierra: conservation mi History[2004]; 4:147-51; 2:648 – 56; 611 – 12.)


Take advantage ofnuh-nee'uh (NChapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (50)). Also Nanaea. The name of a Persian goddess. She is not mentioned in either the OT or the NT, but her temple in the city is mentioned in (2 Mac. 1:13). Other names by which she was known are Anaea (Anaitis) and Nana, the latter being especially used in Babylonia. She ended up identifying with the Greek goddess Aphrodite.

The author of 2 Maccabees recounts the death that took place in the temple dedicated to the cult of Nanea (2 Maccabees 1,13-17). The description is complicated by a jumble of historical events and a mix of mythological ones, making it impossible to determine which Antiochus has in mind. Some have Antiochus III. (died 187 BC), while others postulate Antiochus VII (died 129 BC), but to some extent Antiochus IV (Epiphanes) is also in the author's mind. Some details are erroneously taken from 1 Macc. 6:1–4, which recounts Antiochus IV's failed attempt to extract the riches from this temple. Regardless of which Antiochus is in view at 2 Macc. 1, a contradictory story of his death is given in 2 Macc. 9:1

The one with 2 Macc. 1:13-17 he came to the temple of Nanea under the pretense of marrying her, hoping to receive the riches of the temple from her as a dowry from her. The deception was discovered by the temple priests, who in turn set a trap for Antiochus. When he and a small number of his men entered the treasury, the door was closed and locked. The victims were then stoned to death in a hole in the ceiling, dismembered, and their heads thrown to those waiting outside. This fate is presented by the author of 2 Maccabees as an act of God's justice against this unjust king. (See more 612-14.)

R. L.

Nanarnan'ahr. The name with which the Sumerians worshiped the moon god. The Akkadians called this a sin. The original form of the name means "giver of light". The moon god was prominent in Mesopotamia.

noemino-oh'mee (Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (51)h5843,"nice" or possibly "my nice"; see J.M. Sason,Ruta: AND nuevo Translation com and philological commentary mi and formalist folklorist Interpretation,2nd ed. [1989], 17-18). Naomi's wife and mother-in-law is one of the main characters in the book of Ruth and the beginning of the story revolves around her. She and her husband, originally from, had two sons and (Ruth 1: 1-3). Because of the famine in Judah, they moved there, and when Naomi was widowed, her sons married Moabite women, namely Ruth (verse 4).

After ten years, her two sons died, so Naomi and her two daughters-in-law left Moab for their homeland of Judah, understanding that there was food there again (Ruth 1:5-7). Apparently, Naomi suggested along the way that the two girls seek refuge with her families instead of staying with her. Orpah followed her mother-in-law's advice, but Ruth replied: "Where you go, I will go, and where you stay, I will stay." Your people will be my people and your God my God. where you die, I will die, and there I will be buried” (verses 16b-17a).

When Naomi and Ruth arrived in Bethlehem, Naomi asked the women of the city not to call her Naomi, which means "nice" but rather "bitter" - "because the Almighty has made my life very bitter" (Ruth 1:20). . . Naomi advised Ruth to work for Elimelech's relatives and seek her favor. Boaz pointed out that there was a closer "redeemer" (3:12; but note when the latter found the arrangement inconvenient because he had to redeem or "buy" not only Naomi's land but also Ruth herself (4:5- 6), Boaz agreed to act as redeemer, "to keep the name of the dead with his goods, so that his name may not perish in his family" (vv. 10).Boaz married Ruth, and she bore him to the king's grandfather (verses 13-17). Therefore, Naomi was the mother-in-law of an ancestor of Jesus the Messiah (cf. Mt 1, 5).

R. L.

Napath, Nafat-longno'fath, no'fath-dor'. ver

Naziwithout fish (Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (52)h5874,uncertain derivation). Son and grandson of (Genesis 25:15; 1 Chronicles 1:31). His descendants became an Arab tribe and were among those defeated by the Reubenites, Gadites, and Manasites (1 Chronicles 5:19; KJV, "Nephis"). Some scholars believe that those listed among the post-exilic temple servants (Ezra 2:50; Nehemiah 7:52; see) were descendants of prisoners of war from this tribe.

elegantnafy-si KJV Rev. Form of (1 Esd. 5:31).

Nafosnay'foth. ver

Nafos insectnay'foth-dor' (Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (53)H5869[with different spelling], possibly "Heights of Dor"). Also Nafot-dor and Nafat-dor. A mountainous region surrounding the city. The first element appears in the plural.Yes H5868only once (Joshua 11:2), while the singular constructionexactlyit is found twice (12:23; 1 Kings 4:11). also the wordortigasoccurs only once (in the form of a pausehannahpetjoseph 17:11); Some versions treat it as a proper name (NIV, "Naphoth"; NRSV, "Naphath"), but as a common name in others (KJV, "countries"; NJPS, "regions"). The name is apparently related to the h5679,"Exaltation, height" (Psalm 48:2 only).

naphtalinaf'tuh-li (Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (54)h5889,"[my] fight", possibly the form can be understood as Gentile according to folk etymology, and J. Lewy inHUCA18 [1943–44]: 452 suggests the meaning “dweller of the hills”;Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (55)G3750).KJV NT Naphthalim. Sixth son of and his second son of (Genesis 29:29). Naphtali and (Bilhah's eldest son) are usually mentioned together in the OT context. Naphtali's descendants became one of the tribes of Israel.

UE. Die Persona Von Naphtali.In the dispute between the affections of Rachel and Jacob, each offered his servant Jacob as a CONCUBINE. The children thus begotten were the glory and comfort of Jacob's wives, though they were born of his handmaidens. Bilhah's second son especially pleased Rachel, so the events of the child's birth and the etymology of her name are described. (Genesis 30:7-8). Rachel was pleased with the protest: "I had a big fightElohimwith my sister, and I won." Therefore, she named the child "Mein Kampf".

Naphtali's life and character are not given in Scripture, and due to the tribe's distance from the center of Israel's history after settling in Palestine, few legends surround the name. the aramaicI produce Pseudo-Jonathanit records the two traditions that Naphtali was a fast runner and that he was chosen with four of his brothers to appear before Pharaoh. A tradition found in the Rabbinic Commentaries and in theTestament Von a XII patriarchshe gives his age at death as 132 years. The person of this patriarch is somber and does not seem to have made much of an impression either in etymologies or in folk tales.

In Jacob's final prophetic blessing, only a short poetic phrase is dedicated to Naphtali (Genesis 49:21). He is characterized as "a loose doe carrying fair fawns" (or "speaking fair words"). One tradition sees the first movement as an allusion to the early ripening of the crops of the plains, while a later tradition refers to the swiftness of Naphtali's warriors. There is also a difference in the second sentence. The earlier tradition ofPseudo-Jonathanrefers to "good words" in response to calls to war (Judges 4:10; 5:18), while a later tradition describes it simply as a reference to Naphtali's skill in victory songs. Although not clearly expressed, these four interpretations of the Genesis poem affected later beliefs and feelings towards Naphtali.

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Part of the Naphtali tribal area of ​​the Galilee (looking N from the cliffs of Arbel towards the Wadi

II. History Von a Stamm.Like the life of the patriarch, the history of the Naphthalites is less well known than that of the other tribes. In Naphtali he is never separated from the list of other patriarchs and tribes. However, in the organizational lists of the tribes, Naftalí named very few people. In the first census of Numbers 1:43 and 2:30 the Naphthalites were 53,400; in the second census of Numbers 26:48-50 the total was 45,400. In the march and camp order during Exodus, Naphtali brought up the rear as he camped N of the TABERNACLE near Dan and Asher.

In the prophetic vision of his last admonition before his death (Deut 33:23), Naphtali is given the land around the lake and the area south of it. When Canaanite territory was drawn by lot, Naphtali was next to last. Consult Josh for the list of cities and towns assigned to them. 19:32-39. In Jewish tradition, Naphtali's flag bore the inscription: "Yahweh returns to the multitude of Israel." However, they did not drive out the Canaanites, but lived among them (Judges 1:33). Traditionally, this situation is considered one of the reasons why the tribe abandoned the cult so quickly. When the tribes were summoned to battle at the insistence of the prophetess Deborah, Naphtali was the first to arrive to fight the Canaanite armies led by Sisera. Below they were called to battle again and fought against the Midianites.

At the time of the beginning of the monarchy, the great campaigns were still taking place in southern Palestine and against the coast. In most of the kingdom's statistics, nothing out of the ordinary is reported about Naphtali. At the end of his reign, a certain son of Azriel ruled the tribe (1 Chronicles 27:19). In the list of Solomon's administration, it is mentioned that Naphtali was ruled by a son-in-law of the king (1 Kings 4:15). Little else can be added to the chronicle of the tribe.

third ort no Palestine.The actual boundaries of Naphtali's tribal territory are given in Josh. 19:32-39. The problem is that the text does not list a continuous series of place names in a clearly defined geographical order. In this and other passages many cities are mentioned, all in the region to the W of Lake Kinnereth, along its shore, up N and NW of Bahret el-Huleh. One problem is location, either to the south near modern Rama at the head of the Shezor Valley, or further north near modern Ramie in Lebanon.

The W limit is also hard to see. The tribe of was along the coast, but it belonged to Naphtali. The northern border must have changed since the days before the divided monarchy, but it certainly stretched north. The exact borders of the kingdom are still disputed. The Land of Naphtali is a series of plains to the west of Kinnereth, through which many streams flow. N are the mountains that extend to the E around the N shore of the lake on which Shefad stands (referred to by some as the “city on a hill [that] cannot be hidden”, Matthew 5:14). . To the south of the hills and sloping fields is the triangular mountain. The opening of the valleys allowed frequent invasions from the north and east. And the tribe of Naphtali was the first to be taken captive (2 Kings 15:29). See also TRIBES, LOCATION V.C.

4. naphtali no a NEW TESTAMENT.Given that the territory of the homeland of Jesus and his apostles was in the ancient region of Naphtali, it is not surprising that their traditions were strong among the Jews of the Inter-Covenant and New Testament periods who lived in the northernmost extension of the monarchy. . In the early days of his public ministry, Jesus withdrew to Galilee, "the land of Zebulun and the land of Naphtali," and there the prophecy of Jesah was fulfilled. 9:1 ​​(Matthew 4:13-16). The mention of being "in the Jordan" is important, since the OT also recognized Naphtali's vulnerability and closeness to the Gentiles. The last mention in the NT is the mention of the tribe in the list of groups of God's servants sealed on the forehead in Apoc. 7:6. Thus, the ultimate end of God's provision for history sees the continuation of the redeemed THEOCRACY. This theme fits well with the blessings promised to the twelve tribes.

(See more M. Noth,What System a doze tribe From Israel[1930]; C.U. Wolf, "Israel's Tribal Organization Terminology,"JBL65 [1946]: 45–49; NK Gottwald,Die tribe Von Jehovah: AND sociology Von a Religion Von published Israel, 1250-1050 v.Chr.[1999, originals. 1979].)


Naftarnaph'thahr. ver

Oil pannaf'tuh-he. To see

NaftuhitenNaf'tuh-Hits (Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (57)h5888,uncertain derivation). A people descended from (NRSV, "Egypt"), son of (Genesis 10:13; 1 Chronicles 1:11). Their identity is unknown, but as they are listed just before the inhabitants of Upper (i.e., southern) Egypt, some scholars have suggested that the Naftutites were associated with Lower Egypt, particularly the Delta (for possible etymologies supporting this suggestion , see KA Kitchen atNBD,803; see also W. Spiegelberg inOrientalist literary magazine9 [1906]: 276-79). An alternative proposal connects the name with the Egyptian god Ptah and thus with the Middle Egyptian city (see G. Rendsburg inJNSL13 [1987]: 89–96, bes. 91).


Towel.This English term is translated by the KJV in three passagesSoudarion G5051(Latin for a piece of cloth (Lk.

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To Naftali tribal area.

7:20 p.m. John 11:44; 20:7; is translated "handkerchief" in its only other occurrence in the New Testament, Acts 19:12). The term could be used specifically for a wipe used to wipe away sweat. Passages in John refer to the custom of covering the face of the dead with a burial cloth, and John 20:7 specifically indicates that the cloth covering the face of Jesus in death that was in the open tomb was found, carefully wrapped. , separated from the other shrouds. Note that the "other disciple...saw and believed" (20:8). The simple headscarf was the clue that let John know this was not a violent grave robbing, otherwise the burial cloths would have been thrown in a pile or taken with the corpse. The careful arrangement impressed the sensitive apostle with the wonderful truth that his Lord rose from the dead.

personal computer

narcisonahr-sis'uhs (Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (59)When writing to the church, he sends greetings to "those of the house of Narcissus who are in the Lord" (Romans 16:11). The reference apparently refers to Christians among the slaves (or possibly freedmen) in this house. Why Narcissus himself is not greeted has been the subject of speculation. if he had died or did Paul know he was not in Rome at the time? Or maybe Narcissus was not a believer? (For the latter vision see in particular P. Lampe inDie romans Debate,Donfried edition, Rev. edition [1991], 222, which interprets the mention of v. 10 similarly).

Narde.See NARDO.

Nasbasin the booing RV Apoc. Variant of (Tob. 11:18).

Nash Papyrus.Name of an ancient Hebrew fragment of the Old Testament that contains Exodus. 20:2-17 (or Deuteronomy 5:6-21) and the Shema (Deuteronomy 6:4-5). It is somewhat damaged and appears not to have come from a Biblical scroll, but rather from a collection of Biblical texts for liturgical or educational purposes. The PAPYRUS has been dated to the 1st or 2nd century B.C. with date of. AD by those who first examined it, but others would date it to pre-Christian times. On the basis of paleographic data, W. F. Albright (inJBL56 [1937]: 145-76; I see.base115 [October 1949]: 10–19) pointed to the Maccabean period (165–137 B.C.). Before the discovery of the Nash Papyrus, it was the oldest known Hebrew manuscript of an Old Testament text. It was purchased by W. L. Nash from a native in 1902, and the following year by S. A. Cook (inprocess Von a Sociedad Von Biblical archeology25 [1903]: 34-56). It consists of a single sheet, not parchment of unknown provenance. The sixth and seventh commandments appear in reverse order, and the Shema is introduced with a phrase that is not in the traditional TM, but in (See more E. Tov,lyrically criticism Von a hebrew bible,2nd ed. [2001], 118.)


With usYes sir. RV Apoc. form of (1 Esd. 5:32).

nostrilsno, true RV Apoc. Variant of (1 Mac. 11:27).

NATHANno'thuhn (Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (60)H5990,"Present" or the short form of a noun such asChapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (61)H535,"God gave" [cf. Etc.];Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (62)G3718[vlChapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (63), as in (1) son of and (2 Sam. 5:14; 1 Chron. 3:5; 14:4). This Nathan was an older brother of and his family is portrayed as being involved in future eschatological events in Israel (Zechariah 12:12; some believe the reference here is to number 2 below, Nathan the Prophet). He is also included in Luke's GENEALOGY (Luke 3:31; Matthew 1:6 traces the genealogy back to Solomon).

(2) A prophet involved in three major events in David's life. In 2 Samuel and 1 Chronicles, Nathan is presented as a prophet in the royal court who first encouraged the king in his desire to build a TEMPLE for the Lord (2 Sam. 7:1-3; 1 Chr. 17:1- 2). ), but then, after an evening message from God, the prophet responded with the word of the Lord that David should not build the building. The reasons given for this denial are that God had not required or asked for such a sanctuary before. Furthermore, the Lord who led David here and gave him a kingdom has his own plans to establish David's kingdom permanently through his seed, which includes Solomon being responsible for building the physical temple (2 Corinthians 7). :4-16; 1 Chronicles 17:3-16).

Later, Nathan confronted the king about his sins of adultery, murder, and lying committed against the Hittite and his wife, Bathsheba, and presented the king with a fictitious legal case involving the appropriation of a poor man by a rich man, Sheepflame. feed a visitor (2 Samuel 12:1-4). When David announced his death sentence to the perpetrator, Nathan revealed that he really wanted history to show that the king himself was to blame for taking another man's wife and life. Therefore, the Lord would bring judgment on David (verses 5-9).

The next paragraph of the narrative (2 Sam. 12:9-12), far from implying the work of an editor reflecting on David's later life (cf. G. B. Caird inBI,2:1103), exposes the multiple punishments that can follow a sin like David's. The king is told that he will witness murder and adultery (patterned after his own acts) in his own family, no doubt referring to the future acts of his children: that he raped his half-sister (13:1-20) and that he killed Amnon (13:21-29) and then rebelled and committed adultery against his father (16:20-23; 20:3). An additional punishment for David's sins was the death of the baby that would be born as a result of his adulterous association with Bathsheba (12:10-23). However, when David repented of his sin, Nathan assured him that God had forgiven him (12:13); HP 51, which records David's repentance, mentions Nathan in the title.

Later, when David grew old and weak, his son tried to usurp the throne. In response, Nathan used Bathsheba to remind the king that he had promised Solomon the throne and, at David's command, helped make public that Solomon was the heir to the throne (1 Kings 1:10-45). Nathan is also mentioned as someone who helped establish MUSIC in temple worship (2 Chronicles 29:25) and as a keeper of written records detailing the actions of David (1 Chronicles 29:29) and Solomon (2 Chronicles 9 ). :29).

(3) father of one of David's mighty warriors (2 Sam. 23:36); the parallel passage, apparently the result of clerical corruption, identifies Nathan as Joel's brother (1 Chronicles 11:38).

(4) Solomon's list of “principal chiefs” (1 Kings 4:2) includes the following: “Azariah the son of Nathan—in charge of the district officers; Zabud, son of Nathan, priest and personal adviser to the king” (1 Kings 4:5). It is customary to assume that Azarias and Zabud were sons of the same man. Many have thought that this Nathan should be identified with Solomon's brother (#1 above); others suggested Nathan the Prophet (#2). Also, some wonder if there is a connection between Nathan, Zabud's father, and Nathan, Zabad's father (see #5 below). None of these suggestions can be confirmed.

(5) Son of a descendant and father of Zabad (1 Chr. 2:36).

(6) One of a group of leaders sent to bring servants into the house of God (Ezra 8:16; 1 Ezra 8:44). He is generally regarded as the same Binui-descended Nathan who agreed to divorce his foreign wife (Ezra 10:39; apparently called "Netaniah" [KJV, "Nathaniah"] in 1 Ezra 9:34).


Nathanaelnuh-than'ay-uhl (NChapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (64)g3720,from hebrewChapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (65)H5991,"Ten Gods"; cf. etc.). (1) Rev. form of (1 Esd. 9:22).

(2) Son of Salamiel and ancestor of (Judg. 8:1).

(3) A disciple of Jesus, only in John 1:45-51; 21:2. His house was in (21:2) and he heard about Jesus (1:45). At first, Nathanael was skeptical because he had only heard that Jesus was from Judea and probably shared the Jewish belief of his day that He must come from Judea (1:46; cf. 7:42). But his prejudice was overcome by Jesus' statement that he had seen Nathanael "under the fig tree" (1:48, 50). The meaning of this statement is debatable. Perhaps it is no more than an indication of Jesus' supernatural knowledge of Nathanael's character (cf. 2:25). Or Jesus may have known what Nathanael was thinking: a fig tree was a favorite place for meditation among Jewish rabbis, and possibly Nathanael was meditating on the story of (which Jesus alluded to later, verse 51).

It is difficult more than to speculate why the incident so impressed Nathanael, but the intent of the author of the Gospel of John may be easier to discern. Perhaps John saw a correspondence between the calling of the new Israel (ie, Jesus' disciples) and the original calling of Israel in the OT (cf. Hos 9:10a). The purpose of the ministry was for Jesus to be "revealed to Israel" (John 1:31), and when he brought his own disciples to Jesus (1:36) to become the nucleus of a new community, the result was that Jesus revealed his glory to the disciples (2:11). They are the meaning of "Israel". The heart of the passage, which begins in John 1:35 and ends in 2:11, is the call of the "true Israelite" Nathanael and the recognition of him as "the king of Israel" (1:47, 49). When Jesus promised him "greater things" (verse 50), he was referring to the vision of Jacob (verse 51), who was the first to be called "Israel" (Genesis 28:12). The singular “you” in John 1:50 becomes plural in the next verse when Jesus promises all of his “true Israelites” a vision of his union with God. Appropriately, the fulfillment of the promise begins in Cana, Nathanael's hometown (2:1-11).

Since Nathanael is not mentioned in the Synoptic Gospels, an effort was made to identify him with one of the parallels found in Matthew 10:2-4 and A widespread suggestion from ancient times is that Nathanael was the same as (see the article on the latter for the argument). Although double names (even Semitic double names) have sometimes been used, this suggestion remains conjecture. (See below, Standard Commentaries on John. For the use of the Nathanael story in later Greek tradition, see R. Stichel,Nathanael under for him Fig Tree: To die History 1 biblical narrative material no literature mi until a Byzantine papule[1985].)


Nathaniasnath'uh-ni'uhs. Form the KJV they (1 Esther 9:34).

Nathan Melechnay'thuhn-mee'lik (Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (66)H5994,"Melech [= king] gave", possibly based on Yahweh or TNIV Nathan-Melek. A clerk or chamberlainh6247,often translated, in whose chambers "were kept the horses which the kings of Judah had dedicated to the sun"; these horses were removed by the king (2 Kings 23:11).

nationsThe Bible as salvation history repeatedly states that God chose Israel "out of all the peoples of the earth to be his people, his precious possession" (Deuteronomy 7:6). Israel was to be a holy nation, set apart and ordained as priests to all other nations (Exodus 19:5-6), who are also the goal of God's redemptive purpose. Seventy ethnic groups are mentioned in the so-called table of nations at the beginning of the Bible (Genesis 10; cf. 1 Chronicles 1:4-23). The last book of the New Testament predicts that in the last days "a great multitude... from every nation, tribe, people and language" will appear before the throne of God (Ap 7,9), bought with the blood of the Lamb ( Deut. 9). This interest in neighboring nations indicates the importance of the story in the Bible as a vehicle of revelation. The importance of its precise historical dates is unique in the sacred literature of the world. I. Terminology

•This in

•Sou NT

• Biblical lists of nations

• The Table of Nations

• Lists of non-Israeli nations

• Diaspora Jews

• Jewish attitudes towards nations

• The Abrahamic and Mosaic Covenants

•The Levitical Code

• Post-exile reactions

•The Christian mission

UE. Terminology

AND. No a A.Three Hebrew words are commonly translated as "nation" or "people." The most frequently found isAlegre H1580(pl. in the documents, Acadianwill go to meis apparently a Wsemitic loanword, where it means "gang" or "group" (eg, of workers). This basic usage is seen in Joel 1:6, where the Hebrew term is used of the “nation” or locust swarm that invaded the land of Judah. In use, this term emphasizes impersonal political and social aspects rather than kinship ties. Often parallel to the "kingdom" is the state, the institution of the nation, the mass, the masses of humanity. By association, it referred specifically to Gentiles, as distinguished from Israel or Judah. When the term is applied to the Israelites, once organized as a nation with mountain laws and government, it implies disobedience to God and a relapse into being like the idolatrous pagans (e.g., Deuteronomy 32:28; Judges 2: 20; Isaiah 1). :4). He translates regularlyAlegreAnd yesethnicity G1620,the usual Greek word for "nation" or "people".

the hebrew wordH6639it is more often translated as "people" than "nation". The original meaning of this term emphasizes close family ties, especially on the father's side. The Ugaritic cognate means "clan," while in Hebrew the term varies from people around a person (Gen. 32:7; 2 Sam. 15:30; 16:18; 2 Kings 4:41), to the people of a city. (Ruth 4:9) or a place (Jeremiah 37:12), for a tribe (2 Sam. 19:40), for a nation (Exodus 9:15, 27), for all humanity (Gen. 6; Isaiah 42:5). As E. A. Speiser argues, the word indicates a group of "individuals," "people" with common blood ties, not a regimented organization 79 [1960]: 157-63). The unusual expression (literally "no people") in Deut. 32:21 denies to a group of men and women those moral and spiritual qualities that justify the name "nation" (cf. "Lo-Ammi", Hosea 1:9). The singular form of the definite article was applied as exclusively to Israel as it was to Yahweh's chosen people shortly after the Exodus, the eAlegrethey became almost opposite terms, Israelite and non-Israelite, as in Rabbinic Hebrew. The LXX equivalent for the singular of isLaos G3295(the plural translates asLeewardo

The Biblical expression "people of the land" in pre-exilic times meant the qualified male citizenship of the land or locality (Genesis 23:7-13), those who crowned kings (2 Kings 11:12-20; 23:30) who were destined to pay tribute to Egypt (2 Kings 23:35), and who owned slaves (Jeremiah 34:8-10, 19). In the post-exilic period, those who returned from Babylon applied the term to the existing citizens of the land of Judah (Ezra 4:4). The plural is used to indicate the heterogeneity of the Gentile population into which many of the returning Jews intermarried (Ezra 10:2, 11; Nehemiah 10:30-31). In rabbinic literature, this term refers specifically to all those who, through ignorance, did not observe the full traditional law in all its details, and those whom the rabbis considered immoral and irreligious (cf. the attitude of some in John 7, 49; see M.H. Pope inBIDDING,1:106-7). See also HA-AREZ.

The third Hebrew word translated as "nation" or "people" isH4211(Genesis 25:23 and others). This term appears only in poetic texts, almost always in the plural and often in parallel withI grow(eg Psalm 44:2) or (eg Psalm 67:4). (For a discussion of these three terms and others, seeNIDOTE,4:966–72.)

B. No a NEW TESTAMENT.the greek wordethnicity G1620it is translated "nation" sixty-four times and "pagan" ninety-three times in the KJV, as well as modern versions. The translation "gentile" is used when interpreting the reference to the Gentile nations (eg, Matthew 20:19, 25; Acts 4:27; 9:15). “Nations” is used when referring to all nations, including the Jews (eg, Matthew 24:9, 14; 28:19; Mark 11:17; Revelation 7:9). The wordLaos G3295is consistently translated as "people". (See moreNOT A THING,2:788–805.)

II. Biblical I'm listening Von nationsBoth the OT and the NT show a remarkable interest in the various subdivisions of the human race. In particular, the OT offers a considerable amount of ethnographic information. When studying the various lists of towns, it should be borne in mind that they come from different times and may have been compiled from existing sources. The Biblical evidence can now be largely clarified by comparison with the body of information available in extra-biblical literature and archaeological finds.

AND. Die Tisch Von nations

1.general 10 (and the parallel in 1 Chronicles 1:4-23, with some minor variations) is often referred to as the "table of nations", giving an ethnic list of the descendants of his three sons, and apparently the records are limited to the nations of the then known world in the middle of the second millennium BC. BC, mostly NEE peoples that the Israelites may come into contact with. Documents from Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia show that the details of this table would not have escaped the eye of a person educated at the Egyptian court c. 1500 BC so to speak. Added to this is the recurring use of the Hebrew termtôlēdôt H9352("Generations, History") suggests that the author of the book had various family histories, which in some cases may have been written or owned by the person or persons named in connection with the term (R. K. Harrison,Introduction for a alternative Testament[1969], 543-51). Therefore, the material on the patriarchs written in or near it may have been given to the compiler of c. 2000 BC.

The date of creation of the table can be more accurately determined by the presence or absence of certain names. The absence would be extremely difficult to explain if the list had been compiled or edited over time during the Persian regime by priests. The primacy of in Canaan and the omission of (Genesis 10:15, 19) point to a time before 1000 B.C. BC when Tire became the capital of Canaan. The absence of (Byblos) as a descendant or city of Canaan may be due to that city's rule in the mid-2nd millennium BC. The Arvadites (see and (10:17-18) lived in cities (Irqata, the island city of Arwada, and Ṣumur) north of Tripoli on the coast of Lebanon, which became important cities and seaports, all conquered by III in his earlier campaigns 1450 BC (for Arvad = Ardata in Thutmose's records see P. K. Hitti,Lebanon no History[1957], pp. 79 and 80).

This (Genesis 10:15; NIV, "Hittite") represents the northernmost population group of Canaan-Syria also points to the mid-2nd millennium, when the Hittites controlled much of the area from the Great Bend of the Mediterranean coast to . W.F. Albright (inalternative Testament commentary,edition by H. C. Alleman and E. E. Flack [1948], 139) noted that almost all the names of the tribal descendants of (10:23) and (10:26–29) are archaic and do not appear in inscriptions from the first millennium B.C. BC to S Some of the names also belong to types not known as personal names until the early second millennium, although they may have long survived as tribal names. On the other hand, some of the names that do not appear until the 1st millennium BC. (eg = o = o = fears [see may according to the original writing of the Book of Genesis (Harrison,Introduction,559).

The peoples and lands of the known world are divided into three main lineages: the descendants of Shem in Mesopotamia and Arabia, the descendants of Ham in Africa and within the Egyptian sphere of influence, and the descendants of Japheth in the lands north and the Mediterranean. . Included in the list are some of the royal cities and important day centers of Mesopotamia and Canaan. The three main ethnic areas are found in the Land Promised to Abraham (cf. Y. Aharoni et al.,Die Map The Bible Atlas,4th ed. [2002], map 15).

The names in Gen. 10 are not based on any1of the several main characteristics that distinguish a people. Rather, comparison of this list with extra-biblical evidence indicates that, at the time of this writing, the descendants were in some cases racial groups, in others linguistic entities, and in others geographic or political entities. This variation is suggested by vv. 5, 20, and 31, which state that the descendants of Japheth, Ham, and Shem are listed by their "clan."H5476,possibly a racial distinction), "language"H4383,a linguistic distinction), "country/territory"H824,a geographical distinction) and "nation"H1580,a political distinction). As T. C. Mitchell has noted, “racial characteristics…may be so mixed or dominated by intermarriage that they become indistinguishable. Language can change completely, with that of a subordinate group being replaced by that of its rulers, in many cases permanently. The geographic habitat can be completely altered by migration” 805). See CAREER.

2.Acknowledging this multiple basis for discerning nations allows the reader to understand why, although the Canaanites are listed as the son of Ham and not Shem since 2000 B.C. and continued to speak a W Semitic dialect (of which Hebrew itself is a subdivision; see LANGUAGES

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King Sesostris III. (about 1850 BC) ruled over the Gentile nation of Egypt during the patriarchal period.

ANEI). Hamitic tribes who conquered Palestine perhaps in the Early Bronze Age (c. 3100) may have succumbed to the influence of Semitic-speaking neighbors, regardless of their original language.

Another problem is the double appearance of three names in the list, namely (Genesis 10:7, 28), (10:7, 29) and (10:13, 22) as descendants of Ham and Shem. The first two were districts of Arabia. A similar name may have been given to a colony in Africa, as Seba is clearly associated with (Nubia) and Isa. 43:3 and 45:14. The Sabeans may have originally been of Hamitic descent, but constant mixing with other peoples in southern Arabia ended up altering their ethnic characteristics to make them predominantly Semitic. Thus, the relationship given in Genesis 10:7 and 10:28-29 would be correct.

Lud and the Luddites have not yet been positively identified; they may be the Lydians of Anatolia, in whose region the Assyrians (Semites) had trading colonies c. 1900 BC with possibilities of intermarriage. See Lydia, Egypt (hammites) received mercenary troops from time to time (Jeremiah 46:9; Ezekiel 30:5). Alternatively, the Lydians may have migrated from North Africa early in its history, having arrived before the middle of the 2nd millennium BC. on the western plains of Asia Minor. They spread east to the Halys River, where they challenged and were subdued by the Hittites. After the collapse of the Hittite Empire, the Lydians regained their independence and gradually developed into a strong kingdom (often referred to in later Assyrian records as

The name also implies a tricky problem. The passage (Genesis 10:8-10) indicates that Kush was the father or ancestor of the one who established a kingdom in the Mesopotamian region. However, his name was associated with the area now known as Sudan, upriver in southern Egypt. It is also known as Nubia and Ethiopia in the English versions of the Bible (Ps. 68:31; Isa. 11:11; 20:3-5; Ezekiel 30:4, 9; Nah. 3:9 et al.). . ). The Egyptians called the land (Ac.I'm going to cryo Genesis 10 refers to Kush as Hamit, which is obviously consistent with an African location. On the other hand, the el-Amran tribe of Arabia calls the Zebid region of Yemen by the name of Kūsh. There was also a great city in Babylon called Kish, the seat of the first post-Flood Sumerian dynasty mentioned in the Sumerian King List. Furthermore, the land of Cush (Genesis 2:13) is almost certainly the land of the Kassites (cf. classical Greek formkossaio,as pointed out by E. A. Speiser inGenesis,AB1 [1964], 20, 66). The Kassites, who invaded the Zagros Mountains, ruled Babylonia from c. 1650 touches. 1175 BC Cr.

Putting all these arguments together, M. F. Ungermi a alternative Testament[1954], 83) suggests that a very ancient homeland of the Cushite Hamites was the land of the Biblical counterpart to cuneiform.summeror where Nimrod raised them to prominence. From there, the Kushites could have extended their power through traders or armies into the Yemeni region of Arabia, and then crossed the straits to invade Sudanese territory and impose their name throughout that area. Likewise, the later influx coined his name

The events recorded in Genesis 10:8–12 must have occurred in prehistoric times. The NIV and other modern versions give the preferred interpretation of verse 10, which is that he [Nimrod] went from the land of Shinar to Assyria, where he built Nineveh. Archaeologically, the only known time before a non-Semitic people from Lower Mesopotamia pushed N to conquer the region of later Assyria and rebuild cities was in the Ubaid period (3800-3400 BCE). The Ubaid people were among the first to occupy southern Iraq, and it was the only stage of prehistoric development that spread a unified culture throughout Mesopotamia. They could represent the ancestors of the Sumerian people, whose civilization flourished into the next millennium.

3. Contents.In addition to the probable identifications suggested in the previous subsection, other interesting correspondences between the names in this chapter and the forms they take in ancient inscriptions are discussed here.

and.Japheth.Most of the ethnic groups involved in Genesis 10:2-4 were of Indo-European descent. is identified with the Gimirrya or Gimirrai (Gr.), who lived at least in the 8th century BC. C. invaded Asia Minor through the Caucasus under pressure from the Scythians and settled there -705) from Assyria. It is not certain that it is the barbarian land of Gagaia at the N end mentioned in Letter No. 1 (1.38) written by Amenhotep III. to the Kassite king Kadashman-Enlil I.

MADAI was undoubtedly the ancestor of the Medes (look who inhabited the semi-arid highlands east of the Zagros Mountains). They were mainly south Russian nomads of Indo-Iranian descent, closely related to the later Persians. Specialized in cavalry and archery and arrow shooting. , the Medes became formidable enemies of the Assyrians, who made several attempts to subdue them in the 9th and 8th centuries. King Cyaxares (625–585) joined the Chaldeans in overthrowing the Assyrian capital of Astyages (585–550) in 612. Empire at its greatest greatness, but was defeated by his nephew the Great of Persia Thereafter, the The Medes became subordinate partners of the Persians in the growing Medo-Persian Empire.

JAVAN was equated with the Ionians, one of the tribes of the Greeks. The Peloponnese was the end point of the southward movement of the Indo-European-speaking Achaean tribes known as the Mycenaeans (see They began to destroy the Minoan civilization around 1400 BCE. Their famous expedition against northwestern Asia Minor around 1200 was announced in his national epics, HomerIliasmiOdyssey.Driven out shortly after the Trojan War by the Dorians who arrived from the Balkans, the Ionians settled on the western coast of Asia Minor, on the islands of Attica (around and eventually and even parts of a modified Ionian dialect, the Attic, which eventually became the standard for classical Greek prose (see By the sixth century BCE, democracies had developed among the Ionian and Attic Greeks. The remarkable defeats of the Athenians against the vast invading Persian armies and navies (490 and 480) led to their golden age in literature, architecture, and sculpture, their wars with Sparta devastated both city-states, allowing Philip of Macedon to subdue all of Greece around 350 BC. for the spread of the Christian gospel.

The descendants were the Tabali, who settled in eastern Anatolia, and the Mushki O race from the upper river. Both fought against I c. 1100 BC These two peoples came to the ACO from the northern steppes. The Tabali fought in the 9th III century. v. Archeology has confirmed that metallurgy and the trade in copper and bronze vessels was one of the main industries of these two nations (Ezekiel 27:13). has been likened to the Turasha known from the Egyptian records of III as one of doubtless the same as the GreekTorsanoi,or the Tyrrhenians, a Pelasgian race that first inhabited the region and are believed by some scholars to be the ancestors of the Etruscans in Italy.

ASHKENAZ of the Gomer line can be equated with AshkuzAschguz,or that, like the Gimirrai, they entered the ANE by crossing the Caucasus chain. The name has not yet appeared in any ancient inscription. it appears in Hittite texts such as Tegarama and Takaram and in Assyrian writings such as Tilgarimmu, where they are mentioned as living in the N Taurus mountains. This is the homeland of the Armenians, whose ancestry goes back to Haik, son of Torgom; therefore, they may be descendants of Togarmah.

Those associated with Javan include Alashiya, the cuneiform name for the island (Amarna Letters #33–40); probably the greekTartessoin Spain and/or Sardinia (where the name was found in inscriptions); the greekkition(Se.Ant.1.6.1 §128), which is modern Larnaca on the south-east coast of Cyprus; e (MT, "Dodanim", but cf. 1 Chr. 1:7), probably referring to the people of the island, though possibly referring to the Dardanians near Troy in northwestern Asia Minor.

b.Jamon.The problems associated with Kush have already been discussed. The descendants of Kush listed in Genesis 10:7 are the peoples of the shores of the Red Sea and the southern part of Arabia, generally identified from the African side to the Asian side and then inland with the mention of Sabotah, the capital of the land. . of Hadramaut v. 26) on the southern coast of Arabia. it is perhaps mentioned by the Roman geographer Strabo 16.4.24) that the Rham-Manites in southwestern Arabia (but cf.abd,5:597). An ancient Minean inscription from southern Arabia tells of a caravan from the city of Near in southwestern Arabia that was attacked by raiders from Sheba and Haulan. has not been identified. Dedan was a major tribe that controlled the caravan routes between southern and northern Arabia, centered on the 50-mile oasis. S of TeimaChapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (68)(see 150 mi. N of Medina.

MIZRAIM, another Hamite mentioned in Genesis 10:6, is the usual Hebrew name for (Mizraim possibly means "[two] borders/districts", a reference to the two ancient lands of the Nile valley,

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Perhaps the oldest known example of cartography, this Babylonian inscription (700-500 BC) preserves a map of Babylon and the Euphrates. (Circles represent cities or countries, and triangular outlines indicate the homes of legendary beings.)

Upper and Lower Egypt). Around the year 3000 a. C., peasants of African descent living in the warring principalities of Upper and Lower Egypt were united into a single empire by Nar-mer, the founder of the first dynasty. Old Kingdom, c. III to VI. The Fourth Dynasty (2700-2200), known as the GREAT AGE OF THE PYRAMIDS, saw the beginning of religious scriptures (Pyramid Texts) and wisdom literature (Ptah-hotep Proverbs).

His tenure and probable rise to power as royal vizier (according to one interpretation of the chronological dates of Exodus 12:40 and 1 Kings 6:1) dates to the Middle Kingdom, 11-12 sec. Dynasty (ca. 2050-1780). By 1850, Senwosret III had brought all of Egypt back under the central authority of the local grand princes (W. C. Hayes,Die scepter Von Egypt[1953], 196; cf. general 47: 18-26) and he fought in Nubia and Canaan until 230 north). During part of the Second Intermediate Period (1780-1570), the Canaanites, who were mostly Canaanites, took over with a mixture of Lower and Middle Egypt and may have begun to oppress the Israelites. The "new king" of Exodus. 1:8–12 may have been a Hyksos ruler because he did not acknowledge Joseph's fame and admitted that the Israelites outnumbered his people. The New Kingdom, Dynasty 18-20 (1570-1090), spanned the time and writing of Genesis. It was the third great era of Egyptian civilization. The rulers of the Eighteenth Dynasty conquered the pharaohs of Palestine and Syria as far as the Euphrates. In order to establish the large military bases in the Nile Delta necessary to support these campaigns, they continued to enslave the Israelites. The initial date of the Exodus would have led Moses to conquer Israel early in the reign of Amenhotep II, son of the mighty III. (1504-1450), to be taken out of Egypt. II (1304-1234), in the 19th Dynasty, restored Egyptian control over major cities in Palestine and fought the Hittites in central Syria.

The Luddites (Genesis 10:13) associated with Miz-raim have already been discussed. These are unknown unless the suggestion of W.F. Albright (inJPOS1 [1921]: 191–92) it is correct that they were a people mentioned in a cuneiform text from the time of Sargon II.My mother.They are equated with Libyans by many not mentioned elsewhere in Gen. 10 (see K.A. Kitchen (inNBD,803) argues well that they were people of the Nile delta or oases to the W of the Nile valley. This identification would be appropriate in relation to those (10:14) who were the inhabitants of Upper Egypt. The name is attested in Assyrian inscriptions such ascollectThey are not known outside of the AT.

The (KJV, "Philistim") were a race of invaders from (Amos 9:7) - one or islands of the Aegean region - believed to have settled in the late 2nd millennium B.C. After occupying the southern coast of Palestine, they built five strong city-states, and Genesis 21 and 26 tell of contacts between Abraham and Isaac and the Philistine rulers of the early second millennium. , who are believed to have established trading colonies at various points along the Mediterranean coast due to Philistine settlements near Gaza. They apparently did not submit to the invasion (Joshua 13:2-3), and later harassed the Israelites during the time of the judges. Other bands of Philistines arrived by land and together they attempted an invasion of Egypt by sea, which Ramesses III repulsed c. 1188. Therefore, the reason for classifying them with Mizraim may be geographical, since the Philistines settled along the coastal road to Egypt.

PUT (Gen. 10:6; KJV, "Phut") is probably the region of Cyrenaica (see along the Mediterranean coast of (gen.Go outin Babylonian; see Kitchen Ka,NBD,992) where the people were light-skinned. However, some scholars have suggested that put is another way of writingPw(n)tfrom Egyptian texts where the country referred to appears to be Somaliland in East Africa.

Certain aspects of Canaanite history and culture have already been discussed, but it remains to take a look at the other nations listed with Canaan. (Gen. 10:15) was identified above with that of c. 1450-1200, who ruled much of western Asia from his capital Boğazköy in Anatolia. It is also possible that it refers to a much smaller, non-Indo-European group of people, such as the "sons of Het" of Genesis 23:10 (KJV), who are too early and too distant from the S to be part of the being of the S. Hittite Empire. Speiser 69) links Het to those who were a significant part of the population of Palestine and Syria in the mid-2nd millennium, and openly states that the Jebusites (10:16) were the dominant Hurrian element in Jerusalem during the Amarna era ( ca 1400 BC) and, we might add, up to the time of David. To see

They are known to have spoken a W Semitic dialect. Their classification here as Hamites appears to be from a geographical point of view, as their sizeable kingdoms in Mesopotamia had been destroyed by the time of Moses, and they are identified in the Bible as inhabitants. of Canaan. . The earliest known Amorites, according to Drehem texts from the Ur III period, are described as herdsmen who engaged in a quick and orderly cattle trade with the Sumerians. The Sumerian term MAR. TU appointed steppe semi-nomads of Northern Syria. The Amorites appear to have settled in the Jebel Bishri region, in the mountains near Palmyra. There was before 2000 a. a sustained movement of tribes between this Syrian homeland and Sumer via a route along the Euphrates (G. Buccellati,Die the Amorites Von a tu third Period[1966]).

This powerful group of tribes established kingdoms from ON THE in Syria to the Zagros Mountains east of the river in the early 2nd millennium. They controlled the city of Mari on the Euphrates around the year 2000 and ruled Babylon around 1800. They quickly assimilated into the Akkadian culture and established the famous dynasty.

Apparently, the entry of the Amorites into Canaan dates back to the 21st and 20th centuries BC. to coincide with the arrival of Abraham (Genesis 14:13; 15:16). They are mentioned in Egyptian and depicted in the Beni Hasan tomb paintings (c. 1900) as families of bearded itinerant traders carrying their wares into Egypt on donkeys to forage for food, wearing striped robes and carrying musical instruments and weapons. They probably equaled the Hyksos in control of Palestine and Egypt. The Hyksos names Hur and Jacob-hur have an Amorite timbre. The Israelites under Moses destroyed the Amorite kingdoms in and beyond the Jordan, and Joshua discovered that the Amorites were still firmly entrenched in parts of Canaan. They generally preferred the mountainous region of Palestine.

They are not known as a people from extra-biblical sources, but personal namesgrgs, Grgshy,miGrgshmthey occur frequently in the non-vocalic texts of Carthage and Carthage. This fact seems to indicate that the Girgasites were related to the Phoenicians or Canaanites.

The racial origin of the is unknown, but geographically they fall under the title of Canaan. According to the Judge. 3:3 its center was in the mountains of Lebanon. If "Hiveth" is an alternate spelling of "Horite" (involving changing a Hebrew consonant in the middle of the name), then both the Hivites and Hurrians known from many ancient inscriptions can be identified. The non-Semitic Hurrians, who probably migrated from the mountains, became a significant power in upper Mesopotamia in the mid-2nd millennium. The common people of the kingdom appear to have been Hurrian, although its rulers were Indo-Iranians, judging from their personal names.

The patriarchal narratives of Genesis reflect many of the customs and laws practiced by the Hurrians, as revealed in the Nuzi Tablets. This is not surprising, as the Hurrians ruled the area from the Nuzi, Assyria, and Mari in the east to the river in the west, including the places where they lived and followed many of the same customs. The Hurrians' initial foray into Palestine and their importance there is seen in the frequent Egyptian designation (during the Eighteenth Dynasty) of Canaan as Huru. The ruler of Jerusalem in the Amarna Epistles has a Hurrian name, 487ff.), and the Jebusite (2 Sam. 24:16) has a Hurrian name or title. Given their importance in the NAE during the second millennium, one would expect the Hurrians to be included in some form in the Table of Nations.

The Archytates, Arvadites, and Zemarites have been described above. The name survives in Nahr as-Sinn and Sinn ad-Darb along the Lebanese coast. Tiglath-Pileser III (745-727) mentions this city along with other tributary Phoenician vassals. They resided in the great city of Orontes, the center of an Amorite kingdom in the Amarna period.

As mentioned above, although the Sumerians are not listed as a people in Genesis 10, the term “the land of Shinar” (verse 10) alludes to their land. All subsequent civilizations in Mesopotamia are based on the non-Semitic Sumerian culture. They may have reached the east or north by sea from a mountainous area and existed for centuries before 3000 BC. established the Tigris-Euphrates valley from the Persian Gulf to the site of modern Baghdad. His own particular genius spawned the world's first real civilization. They invented writing, which first appears around c. 3500-3200 in the form of cylinder seals and later stone and clay tablets. They also developed the basic principles of personal property rights, the sexagesimal number system still in use in timekeeping, and the 360-degree circle today, and a large body of literature. Sumer's history as a nation lasted from 3000 to around 1900 (depending on when the Third Dynasty of Ur fell to Elamite and Amorite invaders). This may be the reason why Sumer is not listed in the peoples table. However, the Sumerian language was used until the 3rd century BC. v. in religion, science, law, and economics (as Latin did in the W after the fall of the Roman Empire). To see

C.Which.Only a few names can be identified with sufficient certainty under this heading. it was the eastern neighbor and rival of the Mesopotamian nations from the beginning of history. The inclusion of Elam here has been disputed on linguistic grounds, as Elamite or Susian was not a Semitic language (nor is it related to Sumerian, Hurrian, or Indo-European). However, language evidence is not an infallible indicator of ethnic kinship, and furthermore, Sargon brought Semitic-speaking troops from Agade when he conquered Elam c. 2200 (GL Archer,study Von alternative Testament Introduction,Revolution. edition [1994], 225). The grouping in Genesis 10:22

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Remains of palaces in Babylon from the time of Nebuchadnezzar.

under Shem it is primarily a matter of geographical and political considerations.

The name lives on in the Assyrian nation. These hardy people of mixed Semitic and non-Semitic ancestry lived in the upper reaches of the Tigris River. Linguistically, they belonged to the eastern branch of the Semitic language family. They began shortly after 2000 B.C. to gain political importance, and by 1900 Assyrian traders had established nine trading colonies in Anatolia, the most important of which was at Kanesh. Shamshi-Adad I gradually expanded his kingdom c. In 1800, his two sons ruled Mari until the city was conquered by King Hammurabi of Babylon. With the rise of the Mitani and Hurrian peoples in the region of the upper Euphrates, the influence of Assyria in the time of Moses had diminished. Various Assyrian rulers reconquered some of the former territories from time to time, but the height of their power did not come until after 900 BC. For nearly 300 years, their kings marched against Israel and Judah and acted as unwitting agents of God's judgment against his sinful people.

One would expect that the father of (whose name comes from the termhebrewcould have come) would have a truly Semitic name. Instead, this name continues to defy linguistic analysis (see Speiser,Genesis,70). Various theories have been put forward, such as linking the name to cuneiform.arrahu,GreekArrapaquitaprobably modern Kirkuk. This does not adequately explain the last three consonants in Hebrew. Another solution is to see the end of the name,- nowas corruption ofkeśed, Kaśdim,the "Chaldeans", and therefore the name refers to Babylonia (Sumeria and Akkad), which is otherwise strangely absent from this entire list (J. Simons,Die geographically mi topographic Text Von a alternative Testament[1959], 9–10).

The city found is already from 2300 BC. mentioned. After the fall of the Sumerian capital Ur c. In 2000, Babylonia became a small independent kingdom under an Amorite dynasty founded by Sumu-abu. His famous successor Hammurabi in the 18th century extended his rule over all of Sumer, Assyria, and Mari, eventually defeating the Elamite kingdom of Rim-Sin at Larsa. His famous code of laws attests to an advanced and well-ordered civilization. His dynasty ended with a Hittite attack c. 1600, which paved the way for the Kassite highlanders to conquer all of Babylonia in the following centuries. Once again, the non-existence of the Babylonians as a nation at the time of Moses may explain why they are not mentioned by their usual names in the Table of Nations.

Aram was the progenitor of the Aramaeans, tribes that surrounded the Middle Euphrates region and occupied Harran as early as Abraham's time (c. 2000). a W Semitic language, spoken by Laban as early as the 19th century. (Genesis 31:47). The earliest extra-biblical evidence for the Aramaic language comes from certain Aramaic words in Ugaritic texts from the 15th century BCE. Inscriptions from the Sargon of Agade (Akkad) dynasty and Ur III dynasty (c. 2400–2000) mention a settlement calledplow(e/i)in the region E of the Tigris, N of Elam and ENE of Assyria. This can be seen as a Proto-Aramaic group, which would correspond to listing Aram with Elam and Asshur (Gen 10:22; see K.A. Kitchen onNBD,Sixty-five). In Genesis 22:20-24 twelve Aramaic tribes related to Abraham's brother are listed. The latter seems to be mentioned c. 1830 in the latest Egyptian execution texts as already in N Transjordan (cf. B. Mazar inJBL80 [1961]:21-22). Thus, the Aramaeans gradually advanced to the west, towards the Mediterranean Sea.

The Arameans did not have the ability to build an empire. In the 12th and 11th centuries, Syria had a mixture of Aramaic city-states that never merged into a larger kingdom. Pitru, the homeland of the Prophet), and were such Aramaic states to the N, while to the S of these went and conquered several of the smaller Aramaic lands during his reign. Damascus enjoyed a brief period of importance under Aramaic rulers until it was sacked by the Assyrians in 732. The Aramaic language, though simpler in structure and easier to write, replaced Assyrian cuneiform.Language francothe ACO of the 8th century B.C. until the conquest at the end of the 4th century BC. v. Cr.

Uz (cf. Job 1:1, 15–17; Lam. 4:21) was an unknown land located somewhere in Syria or the North Arabian desert, south of Damascus and north of Damascus. it was also in the Syro-Arabian desert on the eastern side, according to Assyrian records 283–39).

The genealogy from Shem to Abraham is given in more detail in Genesis 11:10-26. For the problem of the importance of Eber as a so-called eponymous ancestor of the Hebrews and the possible relationship between Eber and the VOLK see.

The reference to the division of the earth in the days of (Genesis 10:25; cf. v. 32, which uses a different verb,transfer H7233niphal, "they were separated") must be part of the confusion of tongues detailed in the tower of 11:1-9. His name is unknown outside of the Bible, as are most of the Arabian tribes associated with his name. Hazarmaveth, Sheba and Havilah have already been discussed (see separate articles for the rest of the names).

B. I'm listening Von a non-israelite nationsThere are twenty-two lists naming two (eg, Genesis 13:7) to ten (15:19-21) of the peoples who occupied Palestine prior to the Israelite conquest and colonization. The usual enumeration (eg, Deuteronomy 7:1) lists seven "nations": the Amorites, Canaanites, Hittites, Perizzites, Hivites, Jebusites, and Gergezees, in this approximate order of precedence. The first two are almost certainly generic designations for known ethnic blocs; this may also apply to the Hittites when they had enclaves in Palestine, and to the Hivites when that name represents the Hurrians. They could hardly have been a larger nation, since they are not mentioned in Genesis 10. However, they remained a distinct tribe in the mountains of Palestine until the time of Solomon (1 Kings 9:20-21). It is possible that they were of Hurrian descent, as a Hurrian messenger from the Mitannian king Tushratta was named Pirizzi (Amarna letters 27 and 28).

Genesis 15:19-21 gives the largest number of towns and tribes and delimits them geographically between the Nile delta and the Euphrates. It is also the first or oldest of the twenty-two lists. They were a tribe or subtribe from Canaan that apparently intermingled with the Midianites, since Moses' father-in-law is called the Kenite and the Midianite (cf. Judges 1:16 with Num. 10:29). . Some scholars consider the Kenites to be traveling tinsmiths because the Hebrew term seems to mean "blacksmith, metalworker." The Quenites (see other obscure tribe) may have been related to the Quenites. They may also have merged with the Edomites, as one Edomite chief was named Kenaz (Gen. 36:11, 15, 42), perhaps a name derived from their ruler over the Kenizzites (Numbers 32:12) and (Joshua 15:17 1:13; 1 Chronicles 4:13) were somehow related to this tribe.

Dieh7720,"Easter") is likely to identify with thatalternative,the "people of the east" often referred to in the OT (Gen 29:1; Nm 23:7; Dir. 6:3, 33; 1 Kings 4:30; Job 1:3 et al.). This term seems to be a general designation for the nomadic tribes that frequented the E and NE regions of Palestine (Jeremiah 49:28; Ezekiel 25:4, 10). The name Qedem is similarly used as a loanword in the 20th-century Egyptian story of Sinuhe. v. 19-21), showing that it was a common expression in Canaan before the Israelites adopted it. See EAST, SONS (PEOPLE) OF.

They were a formidable people in comparison with the Anakim (Deut. 2:20-21; see). in the days of Moses (Deuteronomy 2:11, 20–21; 3:11 et al.), but a valley running southwest of Jerusalem apparently bears his name (Joshua 15:8; see Some Scholars Suggest the Numerous Dolmens of Palestine may have been raised by the giant Rephaites (the termh8327,refers to the dead or spirits of the dead [Job 26:5; show. 2:18 and others; also in Ugaritic and Phoenician funerary inscriptions], appears to be a homonym unrelated to the name of this people, unless, as some commentators have suggested, the Israelites applied the term to the prehistoric race because they were long-dead people).

Both the Canaanites (eg, Gen 12:6) and the Amorites (eg, 15:16) may represent the entire population of Palestine, since these two peoples appear to have constituted the majority of the inhabitants of the land. country. often used as a country name, forming a gentile name, but there is no geographical termamoras such in the OT. How is he. Speiser concludes (inBIDDING,3:237), it can be postulated as a general hypothesis thatWith thatbegan as a geographical name, but assumed an additional function for ethnic and even linguistic purposes (Isaiah 19:18), whileAmoriteroit has never been used beyond its original ethnic use.

The geographical divisions of various important peoples in Palestine are described below: “The Amalekites live in the Negev; the Hittites, Jebusites and Amorites inhabit the mountainous region; and the Canaanites dwell by the sea and by the Jordan” (Numbers 13:29). A very interesting reference is found in Hesek. 16:3, which says of Jerusalem: “Your lineage and birth was in the land of the Canaanites; Your father was an Amorite and your mother was a Hittite,” apparently referring to the pagan natives of the city.

Old Testament literature is replete with poetic and descriptive references to the nations with which Israel had contact throughout its history (eg, Psalm 83; Jeremiah 25:12-33; Ezekiel 27). Nowhere can it be shown that there is a clear historical or factual error in the names of the peoples or their rulers, or in the events or customs associated with them.

C. Die Jews Von a diaspora.In Hch 2,7-11 there is a list of the Jewish pilgrims from the different countries of their dispersion who came to Jerusalem for the annual Feast of Weeks (cf. the lists in Isaiah 11,11; Jer 25,22-24). . They were amazed to hear the Galilean apostles praising God, not in their native language, Aramaic, but in the various languages ​​spoken by these foreign Jewish pilgrims. Included were the lands from Persia and Mesopotamia to Asia Minor and from there to North Africa, then "Visitors from Rome", ending with island dwellers ("Cretans") and desert regions ("Arabs"). Most of the pilgrims would have spoken the common dialect of Greek (Koine) as a second language, with the exception of those from eastern countries (Parthians, Medes, Elamites, and residents of Mesopotamia) who would be more familiar with Aramaic. To see

third Jewish Definitions for a nations

AND. Die abrahámico mi mosaic alliancesThe attitude of the Israelites towards the Gentiles developed throughout their history around two main facts in the affirmation of their faith. First, God chose Abraham (Isaiah 51:2) and made a COVENANT with him for the benefit of the nations. Second, the deity of Israel, Yahweh, is the only god. The Israelites failed to strike a balance between these two theological poles. The tension led them to religious nationalism and Jewish exclusivism. But God said to Abraham, "In you shall all the families of the earth be blessed" (Genesis 12:3). This promise, with almost the added force of a command, was repeated several times to the patriarchs (18:18; 22:18; 26:4; 28:14). It was the basis of the nationwide covenant relationship established with the redeemed Israelites when they gathered at the foot of Mount Sinai: "So if you fully obey me and keep my covenant, you will be my most precious possession among all nations... Though the whole earth be mine, you shall be to me a kingdom of priests and a holy people" (Exodus 19:5-6a). (cf. RSV; NJPS) Referring to Israel in this universal context as a "kingdom of priests" , God consecrated Abraham's seed for the ministry of bearing witness among the nations and bringing his neighbors to worship him.

God repeatedly reminded the nation of Israel of His purpose through the prophets. But such a prophet and the people in general were deaf to their covenant responsibilities (Isaiah 42:19). But God kept crying out: "'You are my witnesses,' says he / 'and my servant whom I have chosen'" (43:10). God announced his coming to gather all nations and languages ​​that they might see his glory, and that he would send his remnant to the nations that had not heard of his glory to declare his glory between them (66:19).

B. Die Leviticus Code.Separating themselves from the peoples around them, the pious Jewish people could always appeal to the law that commanded them to be holy as the Lord is holy and not be contaminated by any impure practice of their idolatrous neighbors (Lev 11:43-47). ). . The peoples of Canaan had become so corrupt in the time of Moses and Joshua that no one would be saved from the holy war that God himself declared against these peoples. Israel, in turn, was not to ally with its Canaanite neighbors because of the danger of apostasy (Exodus 34:11-16; Deuteronomy 7:1-11).

C. Die post-exile Reaction.For their disobedience to the prohibition against intermarrying with people of other nations, the Israelites returning from Babylon were severely rebuked by e (Ezra 9–10; Nehemiah 13). They were to be a separate people, they would not be allowed to enter the temple courts (Ex 12:38 KJV). The development of this exclusivism is vividly depicted in the events of Acts 21:27-22:22, when he was besieged almost to death by the mob of Jews in the temple area, who suspected that he had desecrated the holy places by calling a Gentile brought to the temple to the temple.

However, God has not abandoned His plan of universal blessing and salvation for people of all races. The post-exilic prophets continued to proclaim their desire to make the nations their people as well: "Many nations will be united with the peoples on that day, and they will be my people" (Zechariah 2:11). "'My name will be great among the nations, from rising to setting. Incense and clean offerings will be brought to my name in every place, for my name will be great among the nations, says the Almighty" (Mal. 1:11) .

4. Die cristiano Mission.Isaiah had prophesied of THE's role in relation to the nations when he sang: “Here is my servant whom I will uphold... / he will bring justice to the nations... / he will not falter or be discouraged / until he establishes justice on earth / In his law the islands will hope” (Isaiah 42:1-4). God announced through the prophet that he would give this person to the people as a covenant, a light to the nations (42:6; NIV, "Gentiles"). Raising the tribes of Jacob was a very small task; he would give it as a light to the nations, so that his salvation might come "to the ends of the earth" (49,6).

In the early days of His public ministry, Jesus Christ commanded His Apostles not to follow the path of the Gentiles, but to follow the path of the lost sheep of the house of Israel (Matthew 10:5-6). After the officials of the Jewish people made evident his rejection of him as promised, he began to prepare his disciples through parables, examples, and explanations for the greater scope prophesied by Isaiah (cf. Matthew 12:17). -twenty-one). In the parable of the dragnet, the fish ofallSpecies were collected from the sea, symbol of all nations (Matthew 13:47-50). He was willing to help the Canaanite based on his unwavering faith, though he repeated his policy: "I was only sent to the lost sheep of the house of Israel" (Matthew 15:21-28; Mark 7:24 -30). He clearly told the Pharisees in Jerusalem: “I have other sheep that do not belong in this fold. I also have to bring it. They too will hear my voice, and there will be one flock and one shepherd” (John 10:16).

In the Olivet Discourse, Christ taught His disciples that the gospel of the kingdom would be preached in all the world as a witness to all nations before the end came (Matthew 24:14). In his last parable, the Lord Jesus represented all the nations gathered before the Son of Man for judgment. At that time he will separate them as the shepherd separates the sheep from the goats (25: 31-33). That the basis of judgment is individual response to his gospel, as revealed in compassionate service to the unfortunate, rather than ethnic relations, becomes clear next (verses 34-46).

After His resurrection, the risen Lord commissioned His followers to go and make disciples.nonations (Mt. 28, 19-20), go throughout the world and preach the gospel to all creation (Mk 16, 15), proclaim repentance and forgiveness of sins in his name to all nations, beginning with Jerusalem (Luke 24:47). When he suddenly appeared to the frightened apostles in the upper room the night after his resurrection from the dead, Jesus announced to them, "As the Father has sent me, so I send you" (John 20:21). This corresponded to his priestly prayer when he asked his father for it.

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Extension of the Christian church among the nations at the end of the second century AD. C. Map showing modern names and boundaries.

separated the apostles, because just as the Father sent his Son into the world, so also Jesus sent them into the world (John 17:17-18). But the Great Commission could not be obeyed and fulfilled until the disciples were endowed with supernatural power (Luke 24:49). Just before his ascension, he promised again: “You will receive power when the Holy Spirit comes upon you; and you will be my witnesses both in Jerusalem and in all Judea and Samaria and to the ends of the earth” (Acts 1:8). To see

The apostles and early Christians were guided by circumstances and the direction of the gospel to follow the order of this strategic plan as revealed in the story of the spread of the gospel in Acts. The example of the apostle Paul is central to the later mission of the church - "first to the Jews, then to the Gentiles" because it was entrusted as much to the Greeks and barbarians as to the Jews (Rom 1:13-16; cf. 15 :15-21; 16:25-26). His last words to the leaders of the Jewish community clearly state that God's salvation has been sent to the Gentiles and that they will listen (Acts 28:25-28).

On the eschatological day, John sees in a vision members of all the nations of the earth gathered around the throne of God in triumph and praise (Rev. 5:9; 7:9). The nations will be healed (22:2) and will walk in the light of the glory of God and the Lamb, while the kings of the earth will bring the glory and honor of the nations to the holy city, the New Jerusalem (21:24). , 26).

(See more H.H. Rowley,Die missionary News Von a alternative Testament[1944]; S. Amsler y S. Bickel emAND partner for a bible,juramento. J. J. von Allmen [1958], 300–305; E. Jacob,theology Von a alternative Testament[1958], 217–23; J. Jeremiah,Jesus' Promise for a nations[1958]; JB Payne,Die theology Von a Older Testament[1962], 180–94, 474–78, 496–98; A.Wilson,Die nations no Deutero-Isaiah: AND Learn a composition mi Structure[1986]; ID block,Die From Von a Nations: studies no alternative Proximity Leste National Theology,2nd ed. [2000].)


Nature, Naturally.There is no hypostatization or personification of nature in the Bible, as is commonly found in Greek philosophy, nor is there anywhere a statement of a complete cosmology, for both the OT and NT speak of final and not secondary causality and see in CREATION in the first place, as the background of salvation (see COSMOGONY; The closest thing to nature as an independently functioning entity in three places in Holy Scripture: The expression "all his hosts" in relation to the totality of God's creation (Gen. 2:1 King James Version; here the LXX translates Heb.H7372with gkcosmosDeclaration of impious alteration of the course of "nature"g5882,Grenade. 1:26); and the plea of ​​the apostle: "Do you not teach yourselves the nature of things...?" (1 Corinthians 11:14).

The emphasis in Scripture is on the following facts: (a) God the Father is the Creator, Sustainer, and Ruler of all (Genesis 1-2; Isaiah 44:24; Amos 4:13); (b) God is omnipresent in everything he created (Psalm 139:7-12); (c) Christ the Son must also be mentioned in connection with the Creator, Sustainer, and Ruler (John 1:3; Colossians 1:16-17; Hebrews 1:10-12); (d) the order and beauty of the universe reflect and proclaim the existence, wisdom, and power of God (Job 38:4-39:30; Psalm 8:1-4; 19:1-6; 104:1-32 136 :6-9; Prov. 8:22-31; Romans 1:19-20); and (e) one can learn of God's generosity and provision in nature in relation to God's provision and care for human beings (Matthew 6:25-34; Luke 12:22-31).

Of the words often translated as "nature" and "natural",physicsdenotes (a) a condition, endowment, or status inherited from ancestors, relating to those who are "by nature" Jews (Galatians 2:15), Gentiles (Romans 2:27), are "children of wrath" (Ephesians 2 :3 NRSV) or the "natural" and "wild" branches of the olive tree (Romans 11:21, 24); (b) innate qualities and instinctual dispositions, as of false gods (Galatians 4:8), men (Romans 2:14; James 3:7b), or even God (2 Peter 1:4); (c) the order established within nature, such as sexual relations (Rom. 1:26b) or modesty (1 Cor. 11:14); and (d) a creature or product of nature (James 3:7a). the related adjectivephysics G5879it is used in reference to natural human instincts (Romans 1:26-27) and in a pejorative sense only to natural instincts (2 Peter 2:12).

NameGenesis G1161,It denotes birth and James uses it to refer to physical existence (James 1:23; 3:6). and the adjectivepsychic G6035(Seeing means the life of the natural world and what belongs to it, always in contrast to the supernatural world and what can be characterized as belonging to the Spirit (1 Cor. 2:14; 15:44-46; James 3:15) ; Jude 19) In this latter theological and ethical sense, the word finds its distinctive expression in the Bible identifying man's condition as "in Adam" and serving as the backdrop to God's complete redemption "in Christ."DCG,2:233–35;NOT A THING,2:656–62.)


Nahumno, a KJV NT form of

nave.This English term is used by the NRSV and other versions to translate the Hebrewes H2121(usually meaning "palace" or "temple") in passages where the word refers to the largest room (NIV, "main hall") of the TEMPLE (e.g., 1 Kings 6:3,5; Ezekiel 41: one). –2, cf. furtherhabbayit Hager,lit., "a large house", 2 Cr. 3:5).

nave (Persona)not KJV Rev. way of (Sir. 46:1).

Belly button.The Hebrew termsay H9219 it isused once in the sense of "navel" (Song of Songs 7:2), once in reference to the umbilical cord (Ezekiel 16:4), and once in synecdoche of the whole body (Prov. 3:8). (A similar word,H9235,which occurs only in Job 40:16 is translated "navel" by the KJV, but its meaning is "muscle".) Another word for "navel" ispardon h3179,and in its two occurrences it is constructed withH824,giving the metaphorical meaning of "the center of the earth" (Judges 9:37; Ezekiel 38:12). In Hesek. 16:4 The emergency in civilian life is compared to the birth of a foundling that is left to die in the open if it had not been saved. She had not received the usual care of a newborn, including the tying of the umbilical cord. Without this precaution, arterial blood would leak from the baby's arteries and escape the rough surface of the placenta until the baby bled to death.


Marina.See BOATS.

Nazarene, Gospel Von a.Watch the.

nazarenenaz'uh-reen (Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (72)G3716[Mc. 1:24; 10:47; 14:67; 16:6; page of book. 4:34; 24:19],Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (73)G3717 [Matt. 2:23; 26:71; Luke 18:37; John 18:5, 7; 19:19; and seven times in Acts]; in the NT both terms clearly mean "of Nazareth", although some scholars believe that the second term originally had a different meaning [cf. BDAG, 664]). In almost all cases, this name identifies Jesus because of his long standing in a passage where it is used to identify his followers (Acts 24:5).

According to Matt. 2:23, Joseph's decision to live in Nazareth was the fulfillment of what the prophets had said: "He [Jesus] will be called Nazarene." it is not mentioned and no specific prophecy seems to make this prediction. Various lines of interpretation were followed. It has been suggested that Matthew knew of an unrecorded Old Testament prophecy that has been lost. Calvin said that Matthew's comment was a reference to the law of (Numbers 6:1-21). Most interpreters have thought that Matthew had Isa in mind. 11:1, where he is called a "branch" or "shoot" (Heb.againfrom the roots of

Others have said that Matthew only meant that the Messiah would be a despised person (Isaiah 53) and not a prominent or accepted person. The Nazarenes were apparently in the first century B.C. despised by their neighbors. (John 1:46). (This configuration is probably due to processes that mixed their population, which in turn resulted in a thick

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Young grape shoots from established rootstocks. The use of the descriptive term "Nazarene" in Matt. 2:23 may allude to the Hebrew word for "branch" or "shoot" (Isaiah 11:1).

Dialect; it also seems that his people were prone to riots and rebellions, which may have further blamed them.) Still others understood the verse as a mere positive statement pointing to a negative truth, namely, that the Messiah would not be called Bethlehem, the place of his birth to avoid hostilities. Therefore, he would be otherwise called, in fact, a Nazarene.

This name, initially given to Jesus as a simple designation of his place of residence, stayed with him throughout his ministry and he ended up carrying some of the shame associated with the place. People referred to him as "Jesus the Nazarene" (Mark 10:47; Luke 24:19). The Gospels also record that unclean spirits identified Jesus with this term (Mark 1:24; Luke 4:34). Even the angels announced the resurrection using the same title (Mark 16:6).

In the last days of Jesus' ministry, this term was applied to him with derision and derision. It became a way for the Jews to express their hostility towards Jesus and their growing bitterness towards him. The sentinels at the high priest's house revealed this quality of rejection (Mt. 26:71; Mk. 14:67). Hatred of Jesus' enemies meant that this term accompanied him to the cross (John 19:19).

The term continued beyond the days of Jesus' earthly life to refer to his followers. An entire Christian church was called "the sect of the Nazarenes" (Acts 24:5 NRSV). Likewise, after Jesus ascended into heaven, Jesus' followers continued to refer to him as “Jesus of Nazareth” (2:22; 3:6; 10:38). (See moretdnt,4:874–79;abd,4:1049-50.) See also DEL.

H. L.

nazarene, Gospel Von a.A variant but non-heretical form of the canonical gospel, though now lost, was published in the 2nd century BCE. circulated. in use by a Judeo-Christian sect known as the Nazarenes (better, nazar[a]eans​​or nazor[a]eans). This is not considered by modern scholars to be the Hebrew or Aramaic original of Matthew, although much confusion has been caused by claims to have translated this gospel into both Greek and Latin.

Confusion has arisen because Jerome could refer to this document as the Aramaic original from which the canonical Greek Matthew was translated. He also referred to this writing as theGospel in accordance with for a Hebrew,This is a misnomer because this terminology actually refers to a different book (see OV Jerome seems to have learned of this document from Apollinaris, who used it in his commentaries as if it were the original form of Matthew. Indeed, the many quotes of Mateo Jerome of aGospel Von a nazarenethey seem to have arisen from Apollinaris's comments. Scholars believe that the copy that eventually came into Jerome's possession was used by someone who indicated in his writing that he was familiar with this gospel of the Nazarenes. Jerome also mixed up a lot of quotes with this one.Gospel in accordance with for a hebrewas belonging toGospel Von a nazarene

Compared to the canonical Gospel of MatthewstoichiometryAttributed by Nikephoros (9th century).Gospel Von a nazarene2,200 lines, some 300 less than Mateus. This indicates that much of what is written in Matthew has been omitted.Gospel Von a nazareneSome scholars have accepted them as extracts from this gospel. If so, there must have been a lot of material that was not in Matthew, since eight of the thirteen proverbs differ from anything in canonical Matthew. It appears to have contained the narrative of the birth and infancy of Christ and was an attempt to provide a complete account of Jesus' ministry. Various divergent readings have attracted interest (for example, Mary suggested that her son go to John to be baptized; it was the fall of the temple that fell at the moment of the crucifixion, not the veil of the temple that was torn). Around the 5th century MSS from Jerusalem known as theZion Gospel editionkeep many variants of this gospel as marginal reading. (M.R. James quoted the Church Fathers from this document inDie Apocryphal nuevo Testament[1924], 3-6; for a more detailed discussion seeNTap,1:154–65;abd,4:1051:52, vs. "Nazareno, Evangelio de").

H. L.

Nazarethnaz'uh-rith (Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (75)G3714[Mat. 21:11; Luke 1:26; 2:4, 39, 51; Acts 10:38], also NChapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (76)[Mat. 2:23; Mark 1:9; John 1:45-46] and N.Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (77)[Mc. 4:13; Luke 4:16]; means uncertain). A city in the home of Joseph, Mary and Jesus; halfway between the southern end of the Sea of ​​Galilee and Mount Carmel. As important as it appears in the New Testament, the city is not mentioned in the OT, nor in the writings of . This has even led to the theory that the city did not even exist in New Testament times, but was instead considered the home of Jesus. There is reason to believe that Nazareth in Jesus' day was a rather insignificant town, dwarfed by the larger city to the north. The modern Nazaré has only one source. Located on the hills to the north of the plain, it offers a good view of the old battlefields. To the N you can also see the mountain to the W, the Mediterranean Sea; and after E,

There is considerable debate about the meaning of the name and its connection to that of the OT. There is an obvious similarity in the lyrics, but the connection between this city and that religious order defies clear explanation. The problem is further complicated by the name that Jesus is called a Nazarene (Matthew 2:23 and many times), as are his disciples (Acts 24:5). It is clear that Jesus was not a Nazarite, because that order is described in Num. 6. It is interesting that even today the word for "Christians" in both Arabic and Hebrew is a related form of "Nazarene."

There is no doubt that NT Nazareth is the modern city of en-Nasira. Spring

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which rises near the St. Gabriel's Church, heads towards the Marienbrunnen in an open square. Undoubtedly, Maria went to this well to get water for the needs of her house.

According to Luke 1:26-27, the angel was sent to the Virgin Mary at Nazareth (see MOTHER OF). Although she gave birth to Jesus and the family later fled to Egypt, her homeland was Nazareth. the terror still reigning in Judea during the reign of Archelaus (Mt 2, 20-23) The two incidents recorded by Luke in the childhood of Jesus clearly say that he lived with his parents in Nazareth (Lk 2, 39-51) . in the large complex of the Church of the Annunciation it is actually not very well founded.

At the age of thirty and beginning his ministry, our Lord left Nazareth for Judea to be baptized by John. An interesting comment about the mouth of Nazareth appears in John 1:46. When he told Nathanael that he had found Jesus of Nazareth, Nathanael replied: "Nazareth! Can anything good come from there?" This question was understood in different ways, but the most common was that Nathanael denounced the smallness of the city and perhaps saw it as a rival to his own people (cf. Jn 21,2).

The reason Matthew gave for Jesus leaving Nazareth to live by the Sea of ​​Galilee was to fulfill the prophecy of Isa. 9:1-2 (Matthew 4:13-16). Another good reason was the so-called first rejection of Christ in Nazareth, which Luke explains in some detail: "He went to Nazareth, where he had been brought up, and entered the synagogue on the Sabbath day, as was his custom" (Lk 4, 16). . . Then he read from Isa. 61:1-2 and told the congregation that he was the fulfillment of that prophecy. So he made it clear from e's life that prophets are rejected by his own people. In his fury, the citizens took him to the edge of the hill on which the city was built in order to overthrow him. But he escaped in the crowd (Luke 4: 17-30). Two identifications were made for this mound. There is the traditional Hill of Precipitation or Mountain of Jumps (Jebel el-Qafza).

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The Nazareth mountain range seen from the bottom of the Jezreel Valley. (Looking northwest.)

S and W is a cliff closer to town near an old synagogue. The latter is more likely since it is closer to the city.

Some evangelists see in the parallel accounts of Matthew and Mark a second rejection of Jesus in Nazareth as part of the second period of his ministry in Galilee (Mt 13,54-58; Mc 6,1-6a). Again the people were offended when he read it in the synagogue. He responded with the maxim: "Only in his hometown and in his own house is there a prophet without honor." except to lay hands on some sick and cure them. And he marveled at their lack of faith ”(Mark 6: 5-6).

The only other references to Nazareth are those in which Jesus is referred to as "of Nazareth" (eg, Matthew 21:11; 26:71; Mark 16:6; Luke 18:37; John 19:19 ; Acts 3:6; 4:10; 22:8 and others). It was customary to name a person after his hometown, especially if they shared a common name (eg, Judas Iscariot, Saul of Tarsus).

Helena, mother of Constantine, built in the 4th century BC. the first sanctuary of Nazareth. Since then, other religious buildings have been erected and subsequently destroyed. During the first Muslim occupation of the Middle East, Nazareth suffered greatly. It was rescued by the Crusaders in 1099 and later became the seat of the Bishopric of Beth Shan (Scythopolis). Saladin defeated the Crusaders at the nearby Horns of Ḥaṭṭin, and Nazareth changed hands again (1187). Frederick II conquered it in 1229, but the Mamaluke Sultan Baybars lost it thirty-four years later. The Turks gained control in 1517 and in 1620 the Franciscans became guardians of the Holy Land's holy sites. The British conquered Nazareth from the Germans and Turks in 1918. Thirty years later, the Israelis captured Nazareth from the Arab Fawzi Kawukji without a fight, and it remains under their control to this day. After Jerusalem, Nazareth has the largest Arab population and the largest Christian population in Israel, with more than 60,000 inhabitants. (See more G. F. Moore inBC,1:426–35;abd,4:1050–51;nah,3: 1103–1106.) R.L.

Nazareth Decree.Housed in the Cabinet of Médailles in the Louvre and originally from the collection of the German antiquities bookstore Froehner, this inscription was discovered in 1930 by historian Michel Rostovtzeff and first published in 1932 by Abbe Cumont (although it appears to have reached Germany , according to the Froehner catalogue, 1878). Consisting of twenty lines of irregular Greek, it seems to have been created in Nazareth, in all probability sometime before AD 50.

The text reads: "Caesar's order. It is my pleasure that the tombs and sepulchers remain intact for all eternity for those who made them for the worship of their ancestors or children or members of their family. However, if someone disseminates the information of that other has destroyed them, or in any way has removed the entombed, or has maliciously transferred them to other places to harm them, or has moved the seal or other stones against such gods, and as for the worship of mortals. Because it will be much more obligatory to honor the buried. It is strictly forbidden for anyone to disturb them. In the event of an infraction, I would like the perpetrator to be sentenced to death for bodily harm."

If the date of this inscription is somewhere before mid 1, this conclusion is disputed by some). Some checkpoints appear immediately. Claudius was a curious man, a kind of Roman James I, who would have been much happier with his books than with affairs of state. Ancient historians insisted that he was mad, but the more one studies Claudius's actual achievements, the clearer the impression becomes that he was a learned man of great ability. He was probably the victim of a form of cerebral palsy, whose lack of coordination gave an impression of subnormality and caused ridicule and misunderstandings in his early years that marred his personality. It is clear that, in an effort to continue religious reform in Europe, he was deeply informed and genuinely interested in the religious situation in the Mediterranean world.

For example, a long letter survives in which Claudius tries to solve the immense Jewish problem. This letter was found among the papyri in 1920 and seems to contain the first secular reference to Christian missionaries. Written in the year 41 AD. C., specifically prohibits the Jews of Alexandria "bringing or inviting other Jews from Syria by sea. If you don't stop this behavior," Cláudio threatened, "I will act against you for promoting a global disease."

Consider the language. It is the style of the Nazareth inscription and the language of a man who has studied the Jewish religious problem and found it vexing. Also, a secular Roman historian (25:4) knows that there were some difficulties in Rome that Claudius encountered regarding a specific "Christ" (with misspellings such as

Although the text of the inscription can be interpreted in different ways, the situation can be reconstructed as follows. The first Christian sermon must have begun in the 1940s, with strong opposition from rabbis in the Jewish community. Claudio, curious about religion and interested in the Jewish problem, listened to the case. The Christians triumphantly spoke of the empty tomb. The rabbis responded with the story of a stolen body. Angry on both sides, Claudius expelled all the Jews from Rome (Acts 18:2). He then asked about the origin of the cult in Palestine and heard again about the empty tomb. The local governor would have requested information, as the minor later did. Claudio asked him to issue a decree of severe penalties in Nazaré, the city mentioned in the case.

If this hypothetical reconstruction is correct, then it is the words of an emperor that define the 20th century BC. Read the first secular commentary on the Easter story and the legal testimony of its central event. (See A. Momigliano,Klaus: Die emperor mi Sena Can,new edition [1961]; IN. blaiklock,Die archeology Von a nuevo Testament[1970].)

E. M.

NAZIRITEwalk naz'uh. KJV form of

Ministrynaz'uh-rit (Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (80)h5687,"dedicated, reserved"). Member of a Hebrew religious class particularly devoted to God. Permission for the Nazarites appears in Numbers 6:1-21 and was divinely revealed until just before Israel's departure from Mount Sinai (Numbers 10:11; compare Exodus 40:17).

The concept of the Nazarites is that of a vow: "a special vow, a vow of separation from the Nazarites" (Numbers 6:2). When vows are classified as voluntary commitments of devotion or abstinence (J. B. Payne,theology Von a Older Testament[1962], 430), then the situation of the Nazirites falls mainly into this last category. The original meaning of the root.nzr(related toIt does not adjust H5624,"To vote") is probably "to depart from common practices" 2:184). NameVisionthen it designates what is set apart, be it a person (such as Joseph "set apart," i.e., of high rank, Genesis 49:26 and Deuteronomy 33:16 [NIV, "prince"]; cf.No freein the sense of "diadem" as a sign of consecration, eg. 29:6 et al.), or a thing (such as a vine during the Sabbath year, left alone to grow freely and deprived of the harvest, Lev. 25:5, 11). But while the vows made by the Nazarite himself represented abstinence, the vows of others, such as B. of a father who entrusts a son to the Nazarean life, devotion (cf. Judges 13, 5). The devotee could also call himself a "Nazarite set apart for God" (16:17). See consecration.

The Nazarite, as presented in , was the one who separated from priestly life for a limited time: "He is consecratedyou are H7705]because (Numbers 6:8). This consecration included several negative limitations. (1) Nazarism meant avoiding ceremonial desecration, particularly touching a corpse (verses 6–7; cf. Leviticus 21:1, for the high priest). In case of accidental contact with the dead, purification was provided (Numbers 6:9-12); but the person had to start his Nasrid period over again: the previous days did not count (v. 12). (2) Abstinence "from wine and other fermented drinks" was specified (v. 3; cf. Lev. 10:9-10, for the high priest). This restriction was not only due to poisoning issues, as fresh grapes, raisins, grape juice, vinegar, and even grape seeds and skins were also prohibited (Numbers 6:3b-4). The bunch of grapes was probably a symbol of all the temptations of the sedentary life of Canaan (cf. the vow of the Rechabites, Jer 35,6-7; see (3) Finally, it was forbidden to cut one's hair (Numbers 6,5 ).) as a concrete symbol of undiminished strength (cf. the neglected branches, Lev 25:5, 11).

After the specified time, the Nazarite offered various offerings (burnt offering, sin, communion, cereal, drink) in the sanctuary (Numbers 6:14-15). While the priest offered the sacrifice, the Nazarite shaved the hair from his head and "put it on the fire that is under the communion sacrifice" (verse 18). After such fulfillment, he became free again (eg, drinking wine, v. 20; cf. 1 Mac. 3:49).

Just as vows generally consisted of promises, often given to God on the condition that he grant certain specific requests, the Nazarite vow and God's fulfillment generally appear to have followed God's bestowal of specific requested blessings (for example, the prayer of a male child, 1 Samuel 1:11). The object of the vow was first responsible for making himself available to God and then for performing the prescribed sacrificial worship. Nazarites could be women (Numbers 6:2) or even slaves, but their vows and ministry had to be sanctioned by their husbands or masters (cf. 30:6-8). God's purpose in establishing the Nazarite group was to raise up within Israel a class of dedicated spiritual leaders to whom He would, in turn, bestow special powers full of (Luke 1:15) and similar in this respect to the PROPHET class ( Amos 2:11).

In times after Moses, when the law of the Nazarites was put into practice, some extraordinary features appeared in it: God could instruct parents to consecrate a child as a Nazarite (Judges 13:5, 7), or they could lend oath to themselves (1 Sam. 1:11). The vow could then be permanent for "all the days of his life" (1 Sam. 1:11), "a Nazarite set apart unto God from his birth" (Judges 13:5). The only known examples of this particular type of Nazarite were and EL (Luke 1:15). For each of the first, God decreed that no razor should pass through his head. In Samson's case, when he was betrayed, his loss of hair represented a corresponding loss of God-given power (Judges 16:20-21). When he grew up again and Samson turned to God, he saw a final return of his strength (verses 22, 28-30).

Later references to the Nazarites are few. The Prophet (circa 760 BCE) criticized N-Israel for squeezing the Nazarites whom Yahweh had raised up with wine (Amos 2:12). Jeremiah lamented Judas the firstI do not like itas "whiter than snow and whiter than milk" (Col 4:7; here the term can refer to "nobles" or "princes" [cf. NIV, NRSV], but lo!BI,6:31).

Jesus was one (Matthew 2:23), but not a Nazarite as was John the Baptist, whom he contrasted (11:18-19). The apostle on his second missionary journey "cut his hair at Cenchreae because of a vow" (Acts 18:18), indicating that he had completed a period of Nazarite. This, in turn, explains his eagerness to return to Palestine, where the other rites would be performed in the Temple in fulfillment of his vow. He later assumed the high cost of cleansing four other men who made such vows (21:23-24). 19.6.1) mentions a large number of Nazarites sponsored by Agrippa I. Later Hebrew traditions fixed the minimum duration of a Nazarite at thirty days (see pamphletNazir,slowly).

The modern critical reconstruction produces a history of the Nazarites that differs markedly from the teaching of Scripture itself, as described above. The fundamental misunderstanding of negative critics stems from J. Wellhausen's evolutionary reconstruction of the Pentateuch. His theory assigns the number 6, with its Nasrid legislation, to the "P", the Priestly Code (S. R. Driver,em Introduction for a literature Von a alternative Testament,Revolution. edition [1913], 61), and therefore at the end of Israelite history (exile or later) rather than its beginning. Lifetime Nazirites, such as Samson and Samuel, are considered the former norm, while Mosaic concepts (limited time, multiple sacrifices in fulfillment of the vow, abstinence from wine and ritual desecration, or even the very notion of Nazirites as subjects of one vote) is relegated to the status of later additions.

Rather, the Nazarite is seen only as a holy and "charismatic" warrior who appears spontaneously, is subject to ecstatic behavior, and is sometimes indistinguishable from the primitive type of prophets. Even the unscrupulous man with long hair can be considered a Nazarite (G. B. Gray inJTS1 [1900]: 206). It is then said that the "later" laws of the Pentateuch perverted Nasridism in the votive fulfillment of ritual duties. However, this was only a feature of later times, when, as Josephus relates, “it is the custom for those who have been afflicted with plague or other diseases to make vows; and they must abstain from wine and shave their hair for thirty days before offering their sacrifices” (2.15.1). the sister-wife of Herod Agrippa II (cf. Hch 25,13), could make such a vow (Jos., ibid.); and it could be done just for a betNazir5:5). (See more S. Chepey,Minister no To become night Second Temple Judaism: AND study Von alternative Jewish written, a nuevo Testament, Archaeological Test, mi Others written Von To become night ancient[2005].)


Nazarene, Gospel Von a.Watch the.

maidenno eh (Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (81)h5828,unknown origin). A city on the N border of the tribal area of ​​(Joshua 19:13). Neah was between and but the location has not been identified.

Naplesnee-ap'uh-lis (NChapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (82)the northChapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (83)g3735,"new city"). A city on the northern shore of (as distinguished from Neapolis, present-day Naples, Italy). Little is known about the founding of Neapolis, but it seems to have been a colony of Thassos and served as a port giving the islanders access to the mainland. The best proof of this is the current Greek city of Kavala. it was about 10 miles. inland, on a plain separated from the sea by a mountain range.

The city first belonged to Thrace (see then became part of the first and second Athenian confederations, during which time it was praised for its loyalty. It eventually fell into Roman province. Its port served as a haven for the fleet of Brutus and Cassius at the time of the Battle of Philippi (42 BC).

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An overview of modern Kavala, the ancient Neapolis. (Looks at W.)

Neapolis was the first point of Europe touched by and his companions when they arrived (Acts 16:11). From here it was an easy journey to Philippi. It is possible that the apostle passed through the city again when he revisited Macedonia (20:1); and it is almost certain that he set out from Neapolis on his return journey to Troas (20:6). (See Pauly-Wissowa,true encyclopedia a classic ancient Science,16/2 [1935], 2110–12.)


nearias(Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (85)H5859"young servant of the Lord"). (1) Son of Ishi and descendant of During the reign of Neariah and his brothers led five hundred Simeonites in an Amalekite invasion and exterminated them (1 Chronicles 4:42-43).

(2) Son of Shemaiah and descendant of Bish after the exile (1 Chronicles 3:22-23). Some scholars believe that he was the son of Secanias; see #1.

Nebai(Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (86)H5763 Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (87)], possibly fromChapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (88)h5649,"to multiply, to prosper" ou form gentia deChapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (89)H5546,i.e. "native to Nob"). One of the leaders of the people who made the covenant of (Nehemiah 10:19; the LXX and some modern versions follow thebroken„Nobai“).

Nebaioteni-bay'yoth (Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (90)H5568[Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (91)in Genesis 25:13]; cf. according to eldest son and grandson of e (Genesis 25:13; 28:9; 36:3; 1 Chronicles 1:29). The name is also used by his descendants (Isa. 60:7), an E-Semitic tribal people of the tribes. The tribes are mentioned in the Annals of III (745–727 BC) in connection with a campaign against the northern Arabs, their allies, and later tribute lists. The Nebaiotites (Nabaiathites) are also mentioned by (668–633) in his annals of campaigns in Egypt, Syria, and Palestine. with Isa 60:7, so they are also used in these records in connection with (cf.A NETWORK,298-300). also the shapenbytoccurs in N-Arabic inscriptions referring to an enemy tribeI see abd,4:1053). Attempts to match Nebayoth with history (as recently as E.C. Broome inJSSNumber18 [1973]: 1–16) have been widely rejected on philological and historical grounds (see I.Die alternative arabs: nomads a a Boundaries Von a fruitful growing, 9.-5 centuries v.Chr.[1982], 221–23, 237–39).


nebalarni-bal'uht (Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (92)H5579,possibly from a rootChapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (93), attested in ca.Difficulty,"Life"; cf. A city that dominates the plain of SHARON; along with Nebalat it was settled by the Benjamites after the EXILE (Nehemiah 11:34). It is identified with the modern Beit Nabala, c. 13 miles ESE of and less than 2 mi. NNE by Hadid.

Plantarnee'bat (Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (94)H5565,possibly "[God] looked kindly]")). Father of me, who was the first king of Israel after the division of the kingdom (1 Kings 11:26ff.). Since Jeroboam's mother is described as a widow, many conclude that Nebat died when Jeroboam was a child. However, it has also been suggested that Nebat was a clan name (perhaps in connection with those appearing much later in the story) or a throne name adopted by Jeroboam in allusion to an Egyptian cult (seeabd,4:1054). Both proposals are speculative and lack evidence.

Do not comenuh-bee'im (Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (95), pl. sinceChapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (96)h5566,"Prophet"). Also, a term applied to the second division of the ancient Hebrew canon, consisting of the earlier prophets (Joshua, Judges, Samuel, Kings) and the later prophets (Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and the Twelve). See CANON (AT).

o (divinity)Oh God (Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (97)H5550,by acc.I getprobably. "a call [from God]"). Name of a Babylonian deity mentioned only in Isaiah's satirical song about the fall of Isaiah (Isaiah 46:1). Nebo or Nabu was the god of wisdom and writing and (along with the patron god of Babylonian rulers). His center of worship was at Borsippa, southwest of Babylon. The cult continued to flourish until the end of the Neo-Babylonian period (v. possibly also (cf.abd,4:1054–56;DDD,607–10, San "Nabus";Reallexikon a assyriology9 [1998], 16–29.)

o (Persona)Oh God (Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (98)H5551,"Height"). Progenitor of some Israelites who agreed to abandon their foreign wives (Ezra 10:43; called "Nooma" [KJV, "Ethma"; RSV, "Nebo"] in 1 Ezra 9:35). Some believe the name refers to the family's hometown. See #2.

o (Plaza)Oh God (Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (99)H5550,"Height"). (1) A city near Mount Nebo (see petition of the Reubenites and Gadites (Numbers 32:3). It was rebuilt by the Reubenites (Numbers 32:38; 33:47; cf. 1 Chr. (Isa. 15:2 ) ; Jeremiah 48:1, 22) The city was later recaptured by the king of Moab, who also mentions his victory at Nebo in prophetic judgment oracles (Isa. 15:2; Jeremiah 48:1, 22). modern Khirbet Musa, 4 miles WW of and just N of Mount Nebo (cf. Y. Aharoni,Die Tierra Von a Bible: AND Historic Geography,Revolution. Head. [1979], 337-39, 440); others prefer Khirbet el-Mekhayyat, c. 2 miles SE of Mount Nebo (cf. S. J. Saller and B. Bagatti,Die pueblo Von o (Chirbet el-Mejayat): com and knapp study Von Others alternative cristiano MONUMENTS no Transjordania[1949];abd,4:1056).

(Video) A look at the Zondervan Illustrated Bible Dictionary

(2) A post-exilic city is mentioned in a list immediately after e (Ezra 2:29; called "the other Nebo" [probably a typographical error] in Nehemiah 7:33). Often but tentatively identified with Nuba, c. 7 miles However, NW of some think this Nebo is the same as #1 above (cf. M. Cogan inIEJ 29[1979]: 37-39). see also

(3) See Traditional Cemetery


O, MountOh God (Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (100)H2215mih5549,"High Mountain"). A mountain from which you can see the promised land. Mount Nebo is mentioned only twice (Deuteronomy 32:49; 34:1). In each passage some very specific clues are given as to its location. The first contains God's command to Moses: "Go up to the Abarim range, to Mount Nebo in Moab, opposite Jericho, and go to Canaan, the land that I will give the Israelites a possession." : "Moses climbed Mount Nebo from the plains of Moab to the top of Mount Pisgah, opposite Jericho." The places that can be seen from there are listed in this verse and in the following ones: as

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Church on Mount Nebo.

See ya; the regions of Naphtali, Ephraim and Manasseh; all Judah to the western sea; the region from the valley to

On a clear day, most of these locations, as well as a few beyond, such as B. Monte. However, the mountain range that supports Hebron and Jerusalem blocks the view of the Mediterranean Sea ("the Western Sea"). The simplest solution to this problem is to say that the statement is not a literal. God "showed" them to Moses, but no one else could have seen them. Another solution is to understand that it is a mirage. Sometimes it looks like water beyond the Palestinian basin. Another explanation is that the verse only says that Judah extends to the western sea, not that you can necessarily see that far. A fourth suggestion is that it refers to the Dead Sea, not the Mediterranean.

Jebel en-Neba (or Nabba) is a spur of the Moab plain about 10 kilometers away. NW is almost opposite the N end of the Dead Sea and therefore not quite E of Jericho. He goes up c. 4,000 feet above the Dead Sea or c. 2,700 above sea level. (See N. Luck,Die Others Page Von a Jordan,Revolution. edition [1970], 176-78). which is connected to Nebo in Deut. 34:1 may be another name for the same peak, or Nebo may be part of Pisgah. Since several elevations in the same area offer the same view, it is not certain that it has the nameParadiseit is necessarily the one that Moses established. A saddle connects it to Ras es-Siyaghah, which was worshiped by early Christians and is a favorite place for many scholars.abd,4:1057). Many ruins appear there, including that of a Byzantine church. (See morenah,3:1106–18.)

R. L.

You-Sarsekimnee'boh-shar'suh-kim (Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (102)Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (103)One of the officers who participated in the siege of Jerusalem (Jeremiah 39:3 NIV; other versions translate it differently). For discussion see

Nebuchadnezzar, Nebuchadnezzarneb'uh-kuhd-nez'uhr, neb'uh-kuh-drez'uhr (Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (104)H5556miChapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (105)H5557[in Jeremiah and Ezekiel], with some spelling variations, from acc.Nabu-kudurru-ushur,"May [the god] Nabu protect [my] heir"; G k. NotChapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (106)norteChapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (107)norteChapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (108)[Estrabon,geogr.15.1.6]; spelling withnorteinstead of r it is often explained as a result of dissimilation). Son and king from 605 to 562 BC. C. he is often referred to as Nebuchadnezzar II to distinguish him from a king of the same name who reigned in the late 12th century. v. Cr.

UE. Fuentes.In addition to Biblical material (especially 2 Kings 23-25; Jeremiah 22; 32-40; 2 Chronicles 36; Dan. 1-5), the Babylonian Chronicles (BM 21946) describe the events of his first eleven years of reign. (Let's see.A NETWORK,563-64). Otherwise, some brief historical inscriptions and building texts, as well as numerous contracts, are the only external contemporary sources for this rule.

II. Family.Nebuchadnezzar was the eldest son of Nabopolassar, founder of the so-called Chaldean or Neo-Babylonian dynasty of Babylon (see He married Amytis (Amuhia), daughter of Astyages, king of the Medes, possibly as part of the ratification of a political alliance He had at least three sons: Amel-Marduk, who succeeded him immediately, Marduk-šum-usur and Marduk-šum-lišir, his brother was Nabu-šuma-lišir.

third History.Crown Prince Nebuchadnezzar led in 607 B.C. he personally led the Babylonian army into the northeastern mountains instead of his aged father's, and again two years later, when the Babylonians avenged their defeat by the Egyptians at Kimuhu by conquest after bloody skirmishes. He fought hand-to-hand in the city in the late spring of 605. He pursued stragglers until "not a single man escaped into his own country." "At that time," he recounted, he "conquered the entire territory of Hati" (ie, Syria-Palestine) and advanced to the Egyptian border to prevent further incursions from that source. —2 Kings 24:7; Joseph.Ant.10.6.1-2). His companions were probably also sent as hostages around this time. The only evidence that the Babylonians invaded Judah itself in that year is Dan. 1:1, which can also be interpreted for the events of the following year.

Nebuchadnezzar settled in or IN EL, where he learned of his father's death on Ab 8 (August 15/16, 605). With some close friends, he crossed the desert in 23 days to ascend the throne of Babylon on the first day of Elul (September 6/7, 605) and be recognized as king of all the earth. His position was strong enough for him to resume his campaign in Syria almost immediately and remain in the field until February of the following year. Probably during this campaign, during which he claimed to have received tribute from "all the kings of Hatti", Judas submitted to him and began a three-year vassal (2 Kings 24:1). which refused to bow to the Babylonians, was plundered and taken by Jeremiah as a dire warning of the consequences of rebellion (Jeremiah 47:5-7). In the years that followed, Nebuchadnezzar besieged an unidentified city in Syria and at home mastered an event apparently involving his younger brother, Nabu-šuma-lišir.

In 601 BC the Babylonians met the Egyptians in open battle under II. Since Nebuchadnezzar had to spend the next year re-equipping his army, it must be assumed that by then Babylon's prestige had sunk so low that Jehoiakim felt safe to rebel despite the prophet's warnings (Jeremiah 27:4-11; 2 Kings 23: 33-35). But once again the Babylonian army was on the march in a campaign beginning in December 599 to exact annual tribute from the Syrian city-states and to ambush restive Arabian tribes, controlled by the removal of their deities. Echoes of this expedition against Qedar (sea and E-Jordan region) are found in Jer. 48; 49:28-33.

The way was now open for direct retaliation against rebellious Judah (2 Chronicles 36:6). Nebuchadnezzar recorded that “in his seventh year, the month of Kislev, the king of Babylon assembled his troops and marched to the land of Hatti. He encamped against the city of Judah [Jerusalem] and on the second day of the month of Adar he captured the city and captured the king. There he appointed a king of his choosing, took high tribute from him, and sent him to Babylon." This text gives the exact date for this conquest of Jerusalem and the beginning of the exile March 16, 597. The conquest of Jehoiakim's son and successor is attested by the Babylonian tables of food, which, along with the Jews and others, call it Palestine, dating from different years of that reign (596-569). The replacement of Jehoiakim by a Babylonian appointee, Mattaniah (see correspondences with the story of 2 Kings 24:10-17 and the removal of the temple utensils (2 Chronicles 36:7; Ezra 6:5). The exiles were moved to April 597, i.e. "in the spring of the year" (2 Chronicles 36:10), beginning the eighth year of Nebuchadnezzar's reign (2 Kings 24:12), subsequently suppressed a revolt instigated by (Jeremiah 49:34) .

In 589 Zedekiah rebelled and again relied on Egyptian promises of help. The land of Judah was devastated, plundered, and besieged, which lasted thirteen years (ca. 587–574; Ezekiel 29:18). In 586 Jerusalem fell and the temple was destroyed. Other deportees were taken to Babylon. However, resistance was strong enough to require further operations against the Arabs and the rest of Judah in 582 and another deportation (Jeremiah 52:30). Historical sources for the last years of Nebuchadnezzar's reign are lacking, although a fragmentary text suggests an invasion of Egypt in 568/7 (such as Jer. 43:8-13; Ezekiel 29:19).

Since both Nebuchadnezzar and Nabonidus mention Labynetus by name, it is still unclear which of them acted as an intermediary between the Lydians and the Medes at the Halys River. It is possible that it was Nebuchadnezzar himself, since he was married to Astyages and the Medes were not yet able to master the W (seeing the lack of contemporary texts means there is no direct reference to his death in August-September 562. This it may have been preceded by lycanthropy, the madness that lasted seven months (or "times," Daniel 4:23-33).

4. Religion.In his inscriptions, Nebuchadnezzar refers to the great Babylonian pantheon and records his devotion to the gods Nabu, Shamash, Sin, Gula and Adad, among others. In the main sanctuaries he made periodic offerings of meat, fish, cereals and drink. Like his predecessors, he claims to have an effigy of his royal form placed on "the plain of Dura" as a reminder of his power and responsibility (cf. Dan. 3:1). See PICTURE OF.

v. Building.Nebuchadnezzar's boast as a builder and planner of cities is not in vain (Daniel 4:30). He expanded Babylon by building a new quarter and palace for his own use. Inside the citadel, he rebuilt the sacred procession path adorned with 120 flanking lions emanating from the gate itself adorned with enameled masonry depicting 575 dragons and bulls, nearly a mile from the Esagila temples of Marduk and Ezidah removed from Nabu. These were at the foot of the ZIGGURAT, or tower of the Babylonian temple, called Etemenanki, "the house that is the foundation of heaven and earth." The base, built in oven masonry around an adobe core, measures c. 130 square yards, it rises to an estimated height of around 300 feet with seven stories topped by a small temple.

Near the Ishtar Gate he built a temple to Ninmah (recently rebuilt). Tradition also ascribes to him the "Hanging Gardens", said to have been terraced overlooking the palace to remind his wife of his native half (Jos.apion 1,19; Ant.10.11.1). The great city was given a series of double defensive walls that stretched for 17 miles. and also protected to the SW by a huge artificial lake. The city was supplied by canals that brought water from the provisional river.

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Burnt brick (from Sitpar, 6th century BC) used in construction during the time of Nebuchadnezzar II. It is inscribed with the king's name and titles.

dividing it was crossed by bridges. All this construction activity, which spread to other locations in the north and south, was marked by inscribed and stamped bricks. While the survival of these buildings, at least until the time of , did much to ensure Nebuchadnezzar's final glory, it should be noted that he himself likely seized the throne from a famous predecessor who successfully liberated Babylon from Assyrian rule and Elam ( ca 1124-1124). 1103 BC). Two later usurpers in I's period, Nebuchadnezzar III (Nidintu-Bel) and Nebuchadnezzar IV (Araka), reigned in October–December 522 and August–October 521, respectively.

(See more S.H. Langdon,To die neubabilonia-chen royal inscriptions[1912], pp. 100-1 18 to 45; D. J. Wiseman,Chronicles Von astrologer reyes (626–556 v. cr.) no a British museum[1956], 18, 37; 64-75; A. Malamat, "A New Record of Nebuchadnezzar's Palestinian Campaigns",IEJ6 [1956]: 246-56; RH Sack, "Nebuchadnezzar and Nabonidus in Folklore and History",Mesopotamia17 [1982]: 67–131; D. J. Wiseman,Nebuchadnezzar mi Babylon[1985]; ibid., “Babylonia 605–539 BC BC", enCAH3/2, 2nd edition [1991], 229-51; M. Henze,Die craziness Von König Nebuchadnezzar: Die alternative Proximity Leste origins mi Early History Von Interpretation Von Daniel 4[1999]; R. H. Saco,Photos Von Nebuchadnezzar: Die emergency Von and Legend,2nd ed. [2004].)


Nebuchadnezzar, photo Von.“King Nebuchadnezzar made a golden statue sixty cubits high and six cubits wide. He established it on the plain of Dura, in the province of Babylon ”(Dan. 3: 1 NIV). The image itself was certainly not made of solid gold, but of gold-coated plates or foil. There is precedent for this in the religious use of the Bible in the "golden" furnishings of Moses' tabernacle (Exodus 38:30; 39:3; cf. Isaiah 40:19; 41:7; Jeremiah 10:3-4). . ), as well as in classical writings (Herodotus,hist.1,183; Pliny the Youngerep.33.34; 34.9ff.) and those (Ep. Jer. 50; Bel 7). The gigantic dimensions (approx. 27 x 2.70 m) in the proportion of 10 x 1 suggest a painting on a pedestal. Regarding the location of the scholars, write down three locations with that name (=Deer,surrounding wall), one of which was near

The effigy was most likely dedicated to a Babylonian deity, though some think Dan. 3:12, 14, 18 rules this out. It has been argued (eg, KD,Daniel,1884], 120), that it was a symbol of Nebuchadnezzar's empire, and the implied charge of treason for refusing to worship the image (verse 12) supports this somewhat. ALREADY. SixVon Babylon[1879], 100–104) argues emphatically that it could have been dedicated to Yahweh, the Jewish god, and indicates that Nebuchadnezzar had already recognized his sovereignty (2:47–48). The golden calf (Exodus 32) and the ATA e "calves" (1 Kings 12:25-33, cf. Acts 17:23) represent efforts to falsely worship the true God through idols (see CALF, Si Seiss You are right, the temptation of the three Hebrews thus increased immeasurably, so here was the syncretism of Biblical religion with cultivated paganism, the ever more tempting temptation to abandon the faith not out of denial but out of perversion.


Nebushasbanneb'uh-shas'ban. KJV form of

Nebushasbanneb'uh-shaz'ban (Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (110)H5558,probably. from an uncertified account name,nabu-shezibanni,"May [the god] Nabu free me"). NIV Nebushasban. An important officer (see) in the Babylonian army; he was among those ordered to provide security after the Babylonians took Jerusalem (Jeremiah 39:13; based on this verse, some scholars alter v. 3 to also refer to Rabmag and Nabushazban as Rabsaris).

Cloudyneb'uh-zuh-ray'duhn (Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (111)h5555,according to "[the god] Nabu bestowed offspring"). Officer responsible for the destruction of after his capture. He burned and destroyed the city a month after its fall (2 Kings 25:8-9), the deportation of the Jews to Babylon (2 Kings 25:11; Jeremiah 39:9; 52:15, 30), and the sending of bringing the Jewish rebels to Nebuchadnezzar for execution (2 Kings 25:18-21; Jeremiah 52:24-27). He acted kindly in entrusting it, along with the royal princesses and other innocent people, to the Jewish nobleman whom he appointed governor (Jer 39, 13-14; 41, 10; 43, 6). Nebuzaradan is called the "chief" of theṭabbāḥiî(pl.Von tame-it H3184, 2Kings 25:8, 11, 20; jr. 52:30), a term whose precise meaning cannot yet be determined from the texts (cf. Gen. 37:36; Dan. 2:14). The phrase is translated as "Commander of the Imperial Guard" (NIV), "Captain of the Personal Guard" (NRSV), "Chief of the Guard" (NJPS).


With that, With thatNo. To see

The neck.There are about twenty passages in the Bible where people, usually the children of Israel, are called "stubborn."H7997+H6902or a variation thereof; For example Exodus. 32:9; German 9:6; jr. 7:26; the LXX equivalent,in sclerotrache g5019,appears once in the NT, Acts 7:51). In these contexts, the word is always used to denote determination in the direction of evil. This image is very accurate because when a person shows determination, not only the jaw muscles contract, but also the neck muscles. This gives the image of someone with a stiff, immobile head and neck as a reflection of mental attitude. God tells the Israelites: “Because I knew how stubborn you are; / the sinews of your neck were of iron, / your brow of bronze» (Is 48,4). The neck is often used as a part of the body that bears a yoke or load (eg, Gen 27:40; Deut 28:48; Isa 10:27; Jer 27:2,8; 30:8; NT ,in the trachea g5549,Acts 15:10). To fall on someone's neck meant to put one's arms around or embrace (eg, Genesis 33:4; 45:14; 46:29; Luke 15:20; Acts 20:37).


Collar.This English term is sometimes used in modern versions of the Bible to translate various Hebrew words (eg, Psalm 73:6; Song of Songs 4:9). See the discussion on CHAIN.

Neconee'koh (Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (112)H5785[in 2 Kings] andChapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (113)H5786[in 2 Chr. and Jer.], of Egypt. Also Neco(h). Son of Psameticus (Psameticus) I and second king of the 26th or Saiten dynasty (reigned 610-595 BC).

UE. I'm looking for no Asia.Shortly after succeeding his father, Psameticus I, Neco began trying to control Syria-Palestine. In 609 he conquered and (Jeremiah 47:1, 5; cf. Herodotus,hist.2,159; some later date these recordings). He led his army, which included Greek mercenaries, north to help the besieged Assyrian king Ashuruballit II oppose the Babylonians. The Babylonians with the Medes had already taken the Assyrian capital in 612. Necho sent emissaries to assure the king that his intention was not to fight against Judah, but against Babylon (2 Chronicles 35:21). Realizing that Judah's independence was threatened, Josiah tried to stop the Egyptians, but was defeated and mortally wounded (2 Kings 23:29; 2 Chronicles 35:22-24). Necho proceeded to seize control of Syria

When Necho heard that the people of Judah had crowned an anti-Egyptian son of Josiah, he called Jehoahaz to Syria, deposed him, and took him as a prisoner to Egypt for the rest of his life (2 Kings 23:30, 33-34; 2 Kings 23:30, 33-34; Cor 36, 1, 3-4). Neco put in his place Eliakim, Jehoahaz's brother, and changed his name to show that he was a vassal of Egypt. Necho exacted a heavy tribute from Judah, 100 talents (more than a ton) of silver and one talent (about 75 pounds) of gold (2 Kings 23:33, 35; 2 Chronicles 36:3).

II. defeats Von a Babylonian.In 605 Babylon sent his son against Neco's garrison on the Euphrates in northern Syria. The Babylonians not only defeated the Egyptians at Carchemish (Jeremiah 46:2), but also drove them out of Syria. The battle of Carchemish gave rise to Jeremiah's poetic oracle about the Egyptian defeat there (46:3-12). Jehoiakim had to transfer his vassal and tribute from Neco to Nebuchadnezzar (2 Kings 24:1). an Aramaic letter,

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King Josiah challenged the army of Pharaoh Neco who was advancing north near the Aruna pass seen here. (Observing N. through the Nahal Iron Pass.)

he probably asked Neco for help against the Babylonians, but Neco was unable to stop the Babylonian advance into Palestine.

JEREMIAH warned of coming judgments on Egypt and on Pharaoh Necho (2 Kings 23:29; Jeremiah 46:2), whom he called "much noise, but misses the opportunity" (46:17JB). In 601 Nebuchadnezzar advanced against Egypt itself, but Necho held off the Babylonians on the Egyptian border in a bloody battle. This battle and the temporary withdrawal of the Babylonian army may have encouraged Jehoiakim's rebellion against Babylon. However, Neco did not dare to make any more military expeditions to Asia (24:7).

HERODOTUS records some of Necho's peaceful efforts, including an incomplete canal (at 2.158) and sending a Phoenician-manned fleet around Africa (4.42). (See also J. Bright, "A New Letter in Aramaic, Written to the Pharaoh of Egypt,"licensed in letters12 [1949]: 46–52, J. Yoyotte, ``Nechao'',DBS is coming6 [1960], columns. 363-93; A. H. Gardiner,Egypt Von a pharaohs[1961], cap. 13;cah,3/2, 2nd edition [1991], 715-18 ff.)


by nekoni-koh'duhn. Rev. KJV 1:1 form of (1 Esther 5:37).

Necromancy.The practice of invoking the spirits of the dead to inquire about the future. See prophecy.

Nectar.The sweet liquid from plants that bees use to make HONEY. This English term is used once by the NIV to translate the Hebrew wordh6747,“[grape] juice” (Song 8:2); also used once by the NRSV as a translationNovember H5885,"Schatz" (4:11).

nedabja(Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (115)h5608,"Yahweh is willing, show kindness]", or "the Lord directs" [cf. BDB, 622]; see son of Jeconiah and descendant of (1 Chron. 3:18).

Nadel.The use of needles and the art of sewing are probably among the earliest human achievements. and he sewed fig leaves together to cover his nakedness (Gn 3:7). The basic design of the hands has not changed over the millennia. Needles made of sharp pierced bone have been found dating back to the 6th millennium BC. Came back. In the days of Israel's history, pins were commonly made of BRONZE, pierced or rolled to form the "eye". Archaeologists have found them in the dust of ancient cities made of ivory, bone, bronze, and iron, ranging from 1.5 to 5.5 inches in length. Highly skilled embroiderers made the curtains for the tabernacle and beautiful garments for the high priest (Exodus 36:37; 39:29). It is interesting to note that the most skilled of these artisans were men (Exodus 35:34-35). In the NT, the apostle was trained as a tentmaker and practiced his trade by sewing strips of cloth (Acts 18:3).

The only place in the Bible where a needle is actually mentioned is in Jesus' proverb that "it is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle, than for a rich man to enter the kingdom of God" (Gr.raphis G4827em Matt. 19:24; mk. 10:25 a.m.;solo G1017[a less common classical term] in Luke 18:25). Some have speculated that Jesus was referring to a small gate that a large animal would have difficulty passing through. However, these and other explanations “only dull rhetorical language” and rob saying of its shock value (D. L. Bock,Lucas,BECNT, 2 vols. [1994-96], 2:1485). The term is an exaggeration, referring to the impossibility of entering the kingdom of God by mere human effort. While those with great wealth or other advantages may be particularly tempted to rely on their own abilities, the implications of Jesus' statement apply to everyone. The disciples understood why his reaction was to doubt.allcould be saved (Matthew 19:25). And Jesus replied, "With man [not just a rich man] this is impossible, but with God all things are possible" (verse 26).

personal computer

Handwork.See EMBROIDERY.

nehemiahnee'uh-mi'uhs. Alternative like KJV Apoc. form of (Sir. 49:13; 2 Mac. 1:18 et al.).

need.An archaic English word meaning "to sneeze", once used by the KJV (Job 41:18; NIV, "to sniff"). As published in 1611, and a century and a half later, the KJV also had "needs" in 2 Kings. 4:35, but this was changed to "sneezing" in 1762.

Néguevneg'eb. ver

Néguevneg'ev (Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (116)H5582,apparently means "dry land" and is often used in reference to the "south" [p. g., Genesis 13:14]). Also Negab. The name of the southern region of Palestine (Genesis 12:9; Numbers 13:17; Deuteronomy 1:7 and others).

UE. Description.The Negev is a dry area with few groundwater sources. Its natural boundary to the N is the plain of , but the Bible also includes the southern part of the mountains of . It is bordered by coastal dunes to the west and east and extends into the deserts of Paran, Zin, Shur and the Egypt River to the south. Most of the Negev is mountainous, made up of mountain ranges that run from southeast to northwest. It is drained by rivers, narrow and gorge-shaped in its eastern parts, wide and flat in the west. Because of this, no major trade routes could cross the Negev from north to south.

II. streets mi roadsWars and commercial contacts between Palestine and Egypt continued while the peoples of NE and NE Palestine used the ROAD that runs through the Transjordan plateau. Only routes coming from Hebron or southern Judah pass through the Negev mountainous region. Thus it was isolated and formed the natural southern limit of Judah. From this part, no army, much less an army with chariots, could reach Hebron or Jerusalem. There are two important roads mentioned in the Bible: (a) one leading south from Arabah, possibly the mountain road (Deuteronomy 1:19); and (b) another coming down from the southern part of the mountains (this is the path of 2 Kings 3:20). A third possible path, of which we are not aware, could have been connected and

third The business.In Biblical times, the economic importance of the Negev was limited. Sheep and goat farming, particularly in the northern and central Negev, was one of the most important industries in the region (1 Sam. 25:2; 1 Chron. 4:38-41; 2 Chron. 26:10). . It seems that donkeys and camels were also practiced here for use in caravans. Of greater importance was the opening of the trade route at the time of the kingdom to southern Arabia, eastern Africa, and the Indian Ocean. The Queen's visit from (1 Kings 10:1-13) and the subsequent dispatch of the Armada from (10:22 NIV) brought silver, gold, precious stones, and spices. Judah maintained his rule over this route during the reign of e (Azariah, 1 Kings 22:29; 2 Kings 14:22). Evidence of royal trade with South Arabia was discovered in excavations at Tell Huleifeh. It was mined in the mountains northwest of the Gulf of. The exploitation of the copper mines was attributed to King, but seems to have predated his reign by some two centuries. The collection of asphalt from the Dead Sea belongs mainly to the classical period, although there is also evidence of its use in Palestine in Biblical times.

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The Biblical Negev.

4. Population.The first settlers arrived in the northern and central Negev in prehistoric times, but permanent settlement did not occur until the Chalcolithic period. At this time, settlements were established along the valley of the great wadis in the northern Negev, particularly in the Beersheba region. There are few traces of the Early Bronze Age, but the Middle Bronze Age saw a great expansion of settlements in the central mountainous part of the Negev. No remaining Bronze Age settlements have been discovered, but the Negev is mentioned in List III. (See T.L. Thompson,Die settlement Von sinai mi a Néguev no a Bronze Era[1975].)

It was in the Middle Bronze Age that it sat between and (Genesis 12:9; 13:1-3; 20:1), as well as (24:62; 26:15) and (37:1; 46:5). . After the Israelite conquest, the Negev became part of Judah, having first been assigned to the Simeonites (Joshua 19:1-9; 1 Chronicles 4:28-33). In the early period of the United Kingdom, this region was known as the Negev of Judah (1 Sam. 27:10; 2 Sam. 24:7).

Archaeological evidence points to an Israelite expansion through the central Negev during the early kingdom period. Fortresses were built along the trade routes. Remains of one such line were discovered along the road stretching from Arad and Horma to Kadesh Barnea. In the vicinity of some forts, around the first half of the 10th century B.C. small settlements. v. The expansion of Israeli trade was coming this time.

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Aerial view showing the topography of the Negev basin.

a portion assigned to the Gulf of Elat and fortification (2 Kings 9:26). This port was the key point for trade from southern Arabia (1 Kings 10:11, 22). In the fifth year (924 BC) the Egyptian king Shoshonq led his campaign against Judah (1 Kings 14:25-28; 2 Chronicles 12:1-12). In his long list of topographical names for the Temple of Amun at Karnak, 85 belong to the north. It seems that Shoshonq penetrated as deeply as Ezion Geber. He is credited with destroying fortresses and small settlements.

The Negev was again in the hands of Israel in the days of (1 Kings 22:49-50; 2 Chronicles 20:35-37), a fact well supported by archaeological evidence. In the northern Negev, east of Beersheba, new forts and settlements were built in the 9th and 8th centuries, some possibly by Jehoshaphat (2 Chr 17:12). The administrative division of Judah as listed in Josh. 15, is now attributed to Jehoshaphat. According to this list, the Negev district included thirty cities, but they were all north of the Beersheba-Horma-Arad line, except that the Negev district of Judea covers an area of ​​576 square miles. and it is the same size as the six districts of Judah in its mountainous part.

This condition continued in the days of Uzziah, who conquered Edom and built the port of Elath (2 Kings 14:22; 2 Chronicles 26:2). This expansion was accompanied by the construction of new fortresses and settlements along important trade routes. The great fortress of Tell el-Qudeirat, identified with Kadesh Barnea, is attributed to this period. It was gradually lost during the Assyrian campaigns of the Negev days. Ezion Geber was conquered by the Edomites (2 Kings 16:6; 2 Chronicles 20:17) and was never reconquered by Judah.

It seems that there was no permanent settlement in the following centuries. The first traces of renewed human activity date back to the beginning of the 3rd century BC. back. v. The pottery and coin finds from Nessana, Oboda and Elusa in the central Negev are commonly attributed to a people of Arab descent who established a caravan state in the ancient land of Edom and Negev in the following century. End of the 1st century B.C. v. and early 1st century BC. AD the caravans stopped and some other newly established places became small towns. A third phase of the Nabataean settlement of the Negev belongs to the end of the 1st century BC. AD This period must be credited with the beginning of Nabataean agriculture. Early 2nd century B.C. Nabataean cities and settlements were abandoned and renovated by numerous settlers in the late Roman period.

(See also A. Negev,cities Von a Desert[1966]; Y. Aharoni,Die Tierra Von a Bible: AND Historic Geography,Revolution. edition [1979], 26-27, 31, 41-42 and others; M. Evenari et al.Die Néguev: Die challenge Von and Desert,2nd edition [1982];abd,4:1061–68;nah,3:1119–45.)


does not defend Neginothneg'i-nuh, -noth (Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (119)h5593,pleaseChapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (120)). KJV transliteration of a Hebrew musical term likely referring to stringed instruments (Psalm 4 titles and others). See MUSIC, MUSIC IV.D; VII.A.

nehemiahni-hel'uh-mit (Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (121)H5713,apparently the gentile form of an unconfirmed name,Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (122)meaning unknown). Epithet for one of the false prophets who resisted and whom he rebuked (Jeremiah 29:24, 31-32). NRSV translates "from Nehelam," but no OT place names are found. It could be a last name. The KJV mg. (at 29:24) has "dreamer", apparently because the consonants suggest a connection to the Hebrew verbpara hal h2731,"dream" (point of view defended by L. Yaure inJBL79 [1960]: 297–314 esp. 307–11), but such an etymology is not generally considered.


nehemiahnee'huh-mi'uh (Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (123)h5718,"Yahweh comforted"). RV Apoc. Nehemiah, Nehemiah. (1) An Israelite mentioned among the leaders who returned from Babylon with (Ezra 2:2; Nehemiah 7:7; 1 Ezra 5:8 [KJV, "Nehemiah"]).

(2) son of Abzuk; he ruled part of the wall of Jerusalem and helped repair it (Nehemiah 3:16).

(3) Son of Hacaliah and restorer of Jerusalem (Nehemiah 1:1). Nehemiah was a Jewish patriot and Persian statesman created to save Israel from national disintegration. Nehemiah clearly saw that the national collapse would jeopardize the true religion. He was cupbearer to King I of Persia (464–424 BC), a position of great responsibility and influence; the holder was classified as a senior official of the court. In this time he just an exceptional man

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The Cyrus Cylinder, which records the conquest of Babylon by this Medo-Persian king in 539 B.C. Here Cyrus claims to have brought the gods and people of many cities back to his homes. This text could provide the context for the return of the Jewish exiles to rebuild Jerusalem.

the position would have been honored, because Artaxerxes's father had been assassinated and he himself had ascended the throne through a palace revolution.

Nehemiah was a member of an important Jewish family; one of his brothers, was the spokesman for an official delegation in (Nehemiah 1:2) and later became governor of Jerusalem (7:2). Nehemiah was born in the month of Kislev (November-December) 444 B.C. he drew attention to the plight of his people. of emissaries from Jerusalem to Susa, the winter residence of the Persian kings. Significantly, he first asked about the people and then about the city. His response discouraged him and he resorted to fasting, prayer and confession, in which he fully identified with his people.

It was not until the month of Nisan (March-April), some four months later, when the king insisted on knowing the reason for his despondency, did he calm down and ask and receive permission to be governor of Jerusalem (Neh 2:6). His resort to spontaneous prayers here (2:4) shows the man's deep piety and gives the narrative a ring of truth. The mention of the queen's presence (2:6) supports the secular historians' suggestion that Artaxerxes was not immune to HAREM intrigues. (The suggestion that Nehemiah was a EUNUCH is based only on a copyist's but explainable oversight in 1:11, where several important manuscripts are found.eunuchsinstead ofOinochoos,"delivery courier". See E.M. Yamauchi inZAW92 [1980]: 132–42.)

All his decisions were wise and insightful, and his actions were determined and indomitable. The request for letters of safe conduct and authority from him to obtain materials for rebuilding (Nehemiah 2:7-8) was no doubt motivated by his inside knowledge of provincial conditions. Arriving in Jerusalem, he made sure of the facts of it by secretly examining the condition of the city walls at night. He then he was able to reveal the purpose of his mission and gather people to rebuild the walls. The response was tremendous: all sections of the congregation got involved in the work: priests and laity, Jews from neighboring towns and counties, and even women joined the work (3:12). The concise presentation in ch. 3 of the construction activity does not give any information about the organizational effort that must have been invested, no doubt again due to Nehemiah's skill.

When a report of Nehemiah's plans reached the ears of the governors of neighboring provinces, their suspicions were aroused, and they began a policy of opposition. The chief was undoubtedly I, Governor of (two of his successors with the same name; cf.licensed in letters26 [1965]: 109-10, 120). He was appointed by the governor of (on the Tobias, see B. Mazar onIEJ7 [1957]: 137-45 and 229-38), and by the Governor of (cf. K. A. Kitchen,alternative Guide mi alternative Testament[1966], 159-60). The course of his opposition unmistakably fits a very familiar pattern of human behavior. In their first act of resistance they used the tried and true weapon of mockery (Nehemiah 2:19). No technique has been invented to rival the skillful use of taunting, mockery, and sophistry in its effectiveness. His taunt took a dangerous turn with the suggestion that Nehemiah was planning high treason.

Nehemiah met the attack by asserting his certainty of divine help, noting the harmless and constructive nature of the undertaking, and finally reminding his opponents that they were exceeding their authority. In matters concerning Jerusalem they had no part, no right, and no connection with it (Nehemiah 2:20). Nehemiah was a man immune to loud provocations. As the work progressed, the opposition took a slightly different form. The remedy - ridiculous - was the same, only increased, but now motivated by anger (4:1-3). Nehemiah's response was prayer and perseverance in work (4:4-6). Showing his cunning, he planned to complete the entire lower half of the wall first. (This seems to be the obvious implication of 4:6.7.)

When verbal sophistication and threats failed, Nehemiah's opponents conspired to use force (Nehemiah 4:8). Again Nehemiah began to pray as he took steps to contain the threat. His motto may well have been "Pray and watch" (4:9). From then on, the work continued under a war regime.

Not all of Nehemiah's problems came from outside of Jerusalem. The Jews themselves confronted him with problems that required diplomacy or determination. At first Judah threatened to defect, apparently out of overwork, but defeatism also played a role. An even more difficult internal crisis arose when the people complained of being exploited by the rich (Nehemiah 5:1-5). Nehemiah hunted down the wrongdoers and insisted on immediate redress. They agreed to give up their mortgage claims. Nehemiah shows an infallible understanding of human nature by insisting that all promises must be duly and publicly confirmed by an oath (5:12). No one could dispute his own selfless and innocent conduct.

Samballat and his friends made two other attempts to subvert the work. First they tried to drive Nehemiah away from Jerusalem (Nehemiah 6:2). He refused and begged to be pressured into doing important work. They then brought an open accusation of treason (6:6). Geshem (Gashmu) is specifically said to have shared this view. With his control of the great S trade routes, he was able to spread such a rumor as far as the king's own palace. Nehemiah did not fail to see the implications of this step (6:9).

After the wall was sufficiently completed for defensive purposes, steps were taken to rehabilitate the Jews. The first step was to introduce them to the spiritual foundation of their nation, the Mosaic Law. Longer sessions for readings were arranged and the authority of the laws for their lives was recognized. The temple service was restored and its continuation ensured. Nehemiah's final task was to restore national purity (Nehemiah 13:1-27). It was a situation that required unwavering determination. He had an iron will and did not tolerate compromise.

For Nehemiah, worldly success did not mean spiritual failure, and royal company did not quench his appetite for divine companionship. Such was the place of the fear of God in his heart that it completely banished the fear of man. In times of apostasy, the study of the character of Nehemiah is particularly relevant. (See more JS Wright,Die Given Von Esras For for Jerusalem[1958]; HH Rowley,Die Knecht Von a Señor[1965], 137ss.) Cfr.


Nehemiah, tripe Von.In the Hebrew Bible, the books of Ezra and Nehemiah are one. For general introductory material, see OF.

UE.he held the important office of cupbearer to I. An attempt to rebuild the walls of Jerusalem seems to have met with a violent end by order of the king (Ezra 4:21-22), and the Jews were in great distress. Nehemiah was appointed governor and rebuilt the nation. The new city walls made possible a capital city where people wanted to settle.

II. Especial Problems.The only serious problem is the presence of in the book. According to the text, Ezra arrived in the seventh year of Artaxerxes I (Ezra 7:7), that is, 458 BC. and Nehemiah was born in the twentieth year of the same king (Nehemiah 2:1), that is, 445... The two men were reading the Law and the covenant that followed it (8:1, 9; 9:6; 10: 1) and in the processions at the Dedication of the Walls (12:31–36).

This order of events has been questioned by some scholars, and two main alternatives have been proposed for the coming of Ezra, namely the seventh year of Artaxerxes II (398) or, correcting the text, the thirty-seventh year of Artaxerxes I. (428). ). . Several passages are cited as evidence that Ezra must have gone to Nehemiah.

(1) Ezra 10:1 speaks of a great assembly in Jerusalem, whereas in Nehemiah's day the city was sparsely populated (Nehemiah 7:4). However, the context shows that Ezra's large congregation met outside the city (Ezra 10:1, 7), not to mention many houses in Jerusalem.

(2) According to Ezra 9:9, Ezra says that God was merciful "to give us a wall in Judea and Jerusalem" (NIV). The NIV understands this figuratively as "a protective wall" (cf. NJPS, "a cellar"). Ezra 4:12, dating to the reign of Artaxerxes I, shows that a wall was built before Nehemiah's arrival, though it was destroyed again (Nehemiah 1:3).

(3) Ezra 10:6 mentions the son of as a contemporary of Ezra. Eliashib was the high priest in Nehemiah's day (Nehemiah 3:1). So far no problem. But in No. 12:10–11 (a name attributed by some to Johanan) he appears as Eliashib's grandson, and the papyri show this grandson as high priest in 408. Ezra is therefore argued to have come to Jerusalem long after Nehemiah. See #8. However, there are some untested assumptions here. Esras Johanan is not described as a high priest, nor does he necessarily have to be identified with Eliashib's grandson. Johanan and Jonathan were common names, and Eliashib may have had a son who did not become high priest and a grandson who did, both with the same name, like uncle and nephew. A positive reason against identifying Esras Johanan with the later high priest is that he murdered his own brother in the temple (Jos.Ant.11.7.1). The incident almost certainly took place before 398, and if Ezra had arrived, he wouldn't have risked his reputation by accepting the gracious hospitality of such a man.

(4) It is believed that if Ezra had dealt with intermarriage, Nehemiah would not have had to deal with it again so soon (Nehemiah 13). In fact, Ezra's reform took place in 457 and Nehemiah's in 433. To think that other abuses had arisen soon after the conclusion of the solemn covenant at Neh. 10, it's no surprise that intermarriage has also made a comeback. Furthermore, some Jews of Ezra's time may have escaped detection because they were in Gentile territory, since the Commentary indicates that they "could not speak the language of Judah" (13:23-24; if they spoke in Jewish territory). , the children would have been at least bilingual). Nehemiah treated her during one of his visits to Jerusalem.

(5) If Ezra had been commissioned to teach the law (Ezra 7:14, 25-26), he certainly would not have waited thirteen years before reading it to the people. Some therefore prefer to attach Neh. 8, with the record of Ezra's reading of the law, to the end of the present book of Ezra, as well as 1 Esdras, and taking it from the time of Nehemiah. However, it is unknown how long Ezra stayed when he first arrived. He would have returned to report to the king, and his job was to investigate and appoint judges to enforce the law. Having dealt with the specific abuses of intermarriage, he may not have been able to rally the people for a common instruction on all the law before returning to Persia.

So there is no need to rewrite history, and there is a strong positive argument against the 398 date of Ezra's coming. If the Chronicler wrote no later than the year 300, as is commonly believed, he could not have mistaken the relative order of Ezra and Nehemiah, for there must have been many people whose parents saw Ezra and told the stories about him, but none whose parents I had seen Nehemiah. The alternate date of 428 satisfies the Biblical requirement of having the two men as contemporaneous, and removes the objections listed above.

third contents mi structure

A. News of the disaster in Jerusalem moves Nehemiah, the king's cupbearer, to prayer (Nehemiah 1:1-11).

B. The king gives him permission to rebuild the city and its walls and sends him to Jerusalem as governor (2:1–11).

C. Nehemiah examines the work and is rejected by the local authorities (2:12-20).

D. The list of builders and their fields of work (3.1-32).

E. Attempts by strangers to disrupt the work through sarcasm and armed threats (4:1-23).

F. Anger that the poor mortgaged themselves and their property to the rich (5:1-9).

G. Nehemiah is accused of making himself king (6:1-14).

H. Completion of the wall in fifty-two days (6:15–7:4; the material would be ready after the failed attempt in Ezra 4:12).

I. List of returning exiles, similar to that of Ezra 2. Nehemiah consults her before making plans to repopulate the city (Nehemiah 7:5-73).

J. Ezra and the Levites read and teach the Law (8:1-18).

K. A national prayer of repentance followed by a special covenant (9:1-10:39).

L. A record of the inhabitants of Jerusalem and its environs (11:1-36).

M. A list of priests and Levites from the return to the end of the Persian Empire (12:1-26).

N. The ritual dedication of the wall and arrangements for regular worship (12:27-13:3).

O. Nehemiah's further reforms after his return from a visit to Persia (13:4-31).

(Significant comments include L. Batten,AND Critical mi exegetical commentary a a books Von Esra mi Nehemiah,CPI [1913]; W. Rudolf,Esra mi Nehemiah,HAT 1/20 [1949]; f.c.fensham,Die books Von Esra mi Nehemiah,NICOT [1982]; H. G. M. Williamson,Ezra-Nehemiah,WBC 16 [1985]; J.Blenkinsopp,Ezra-Nehemiah,OTL [1988]; M. Brenemann,Esra, Nehemiah, Ester,NAC 10 [1993]; K.-D. Schunck,Nehemiah,BKAT 23/2 [1998-]; K. Larson and K. Dahlen,Esra, Nehemiah, Ester[2005]. See also J. Stafford Wright,Die Given Von Esras For for Jerusalem[1947]; H. H. Rowley, "The Chronological Order of Ezra and Nehemiah," inDie Knecht Von a Señor,2. Aufl. [1965], 135–68; ders., „The mission of Nehemiah and his background“, emmens Von Bom[1963], 211–35; TC Eskenazi,No and Era Von Prose: AND Literary approach for Ezra-Nehemiah[1988]; K.-J. mountain work,Die Leviticus authorship Von Ezra-Nehemiah[2004]; JL Wright,reconstruction Identity: Die Memoirs of Nehemiah mi That is earlier Lector[2004]; and the bibliography compiled by W. E. Mills,Ezra-Nehemiah[2002].)


nehemiahnee'huh-mi'uhs. Alternatives KJV Rev. Form of (1 Esdras 5:8, 40).

Nehilotnee'huh-loth (Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (125)H5704,means uncertain). KJV transliteration of a Hebrew musical term possibly referring to a type of flute (in the title of Psalm 5 only). See MUSIC, MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS, IV.C; OV, VII.A.

carrynee'huhm (Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (126)H5700,"[God] comforts" or "Comforter"). An Israelite mentioned among the leaders who returned from Babylon with (Nehemiah 7:7); this name is probably a misspelling of the form found in the parallel passages (Ezra 2:2; 1 Ezra 5:8 [KJV, "Roimus"]).

Nehushtani-hoosh'tuh (Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (127)H5735,possibly "abundant, luxurious" or "bronze"). She daughter of Elnathan, wife of the king and mother of the king, she was originally from Jerusalem. he deported her, Joachim, and other members of the royal family and court in 597 BC. to Babylon. (2 Kings 24:12, 15).

He won't stopni-hoosh'tuhn (Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (128)[Statue]”, apparently a play on wordsChapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (129)h5729,"snake" andChapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (130)h5733,"bronze, copper"; finally see J. Montgomery inSECTION58 [1938]: 131). Name given to the bronze serpent formed in the desert (2 Kings 18:4). The origin of this statue is described in Num. 21:4-9. During Israel's last year in the wilderness, as the nation marched S from the Dead Sea around the N end, the people in their consternation "spoke against God and against Moses, saying, 'Why have you brought us out of the wilderness? '" (Numbers 21:5). As a result, God sent among thempara hannĕḥāšim haśĕrāpīm(Willnāhāš H5729miAbove"fiery serpents," i.e., serpents with fiery poison (BDB, 977; cf.HOLA,just meChapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (131), 3:1359); and these caused the death of many people (verse 6). See SNAKE SHOOT;

Upon Israel's repentance, Moses interceded with Yahweh, who in turn commanded him to make one ("fiery serpent", Numbers 21:8 RSV), perhaps so called because it shines in the light (KD,Pentateuch,3:139; behold, it was certainly made of COPPER or BRONZE and raised to a banner; and anyone who had been bitten would live to look at it. The bronze serpent, therefore, symbolized for his contemporaries the vision of God who believes in salvation; and in the future it symbolized the exaltation of Christ on the cross, "so that everyone who believes in him may have eternal life" (Jn 3,15; cf. Lk 23,42-43).

However, over time, Israel lost sight of the symbolic and typical function of the statue. At the end of the VIII century a. the Israelites burned INCENSE to her as if she were a deity unto herself (2 Kings 18:4). As part of the general campaign against the HIGH and their idolatrous objects, beginning in the first year of his reign (2 Chronicles 29:1), the king crushed the serpent (2 Kings 18:4). . It was apparently at this time that the name Nehushtan was attached to him, probably in derogatory terms: not "the serpent", but simply "the".

Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (132)

Ancient bronze snakes found near Mashkuta in Egypt (circa 1500 BC).

brass thing. Nehushtan thus became an example of how an originally good and saving ritual object can be perverted into its opposite and become harmful to true saving faith. (For another perspective, see H.H. Rowley inJBL58 [1939]: 132–41; K.R. Together,Line symbolism no a alternative Testament: AND linguistics, Archeology, mi Literary Learn[1974];DDD,615–16.)


niel(Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (133)H5832,unknown origin). A city that served to mark the southeastern boundary of the tribal area of ​​(Joshua 19:27). It is commonly identified with the modern Khirbet, about 8.5 miles. ESE of Acco.

Neighbour.This English term is used to represent several words: HebrewH8276(also "companion, friend", Exodus 11:2 and many times),H8907(“Fellow citizens,” Exodus 3:22 and others) andH6660("comrade," only in Leviticus and Zechariah 13:7); Greektidy G4446("he who is near", Matthew 5:43 et al.),We are G1150(“of the same earth”, Luke 14:12 et al.) andPeriikos G4341("live around", only Lc 1,58).

In the case of the Israelites in pre-Christian times, the relationship with their neighbors was particularly characteristic because these people were with God as his COVENANT people. The pact with (Genesis 12:1-3) automatically created moral obligations between his descendants, best summed up in the words of Lev. 19:18, "Love your neighbor as yourself." In this verse, "neighbor" is defined by the parallel phrase "one of his people" (literally, "the sons of his people"). Treating others was an important criterion of justice in Israel. Refusing to respect the rights of others is the height of moral disintegration caused by national punishment (Isa 3, 5; Jer 9, 4-9; Micah 7, 5-6).

While most of the OT emphasis is on neighborhood among Israelites, the term is also applied to those outside of Israel, such as the Egyptians (Exodus 3:22; 11:2; Ezekiel 16:26). This expanded sense did not impress writers in the Jewish tradition; however, when Jesus came, he found the teaching of the rabbis to be much more restricted than might have been implied in the original statement of the law. The traditional interpretation is found in Matt. 5:43: "Love your neighbor and hate your enemy." According to this misunderstandingNeighbourit is limited to "fellow Israelites," and hatred of non-Israelites is the inevitable conclusion from the omission of Lev. of the Gentiles. 7:18 p.m.

The Lord's correction of this misunderstandingNeighbour,based on the spirit of the law and not only on the letter, it is "love your enemies" (Mt 5,44). In other words, Christ's concept ofNeighbourinclude all. Therefore, the responsibility for LOVE is much stricter than some would like to admit. This does not mean, as modern theology tends to do, that all human beings are spiritual brothers and sisters and that God is the Father of all. Rather, the idea of ​​world neighborliness does not go beyond dictating the obligation of universal love, because an opponent also falls into this category.

A further extension of this expanded definition is found in the incident of the Good Samaritan (Luke 10:29-37). The Lawyer's Question - "Who is my neighbor?" - is answered for illustrative purposes. From the lawyer's mouthNeighbourexcluded all Gentiles, but Christ's Corrective expanded the meaning by criticizing the wording of the question. The correct emphasis would be: "Whose neighbor am I? Who do I recognize the right to neighborhood assistance?" The priest and the Levite were racial neighbors of the victim, and the Samaritan was only a geographic neighbor. However, the stranger was the only one who saw the truth that "it's not the place, it's love that makes the neighborhood." Who else is my neighbor entitled to my love?" But her question reveals her lack of understanding of the spirit of the commandment to love your neighbor. What matters is not how narrowly you can limit your neighborhood, but how far you can expand it. his devotion to the people around him.No doubt the jurist was dismayed that he had not received an academic answer with rabbinic precision, instead the truth was drummed out that each, according to their own will to love, could become your neighbor.

With this definition ofNeighbourIn view of this, the NT quotes or alludes to Lev. 19:18 no less than ten times (Mt. 5:43; 19:19; 22:39; Mk. 12:31, 33; Lk. 10:27; Rom. 13:8, 9; Gal. 5:14 ) ; James 2:8). Probably no other commandment becomes a Christian commandment more often than "Love your neighbor." The words fell from the lips of Jesus during his ministries in Galilee, Judea, Perea and Jerusalem. He once spoke the words to a mixed crowd, once to a lawyer, once to a wealthy young ruler, and once to an antagonistic group of scribes and Pharisees. The words also come from the pen of his best known theological letters, Romans and Galatians. The only debt that should exist among Christians is the one that can never be paid in full, which is that of charity. Writing the oldest book in the New Testament reiterated Christ's teaching on this vital subject. For James, Lev. 19:18 represents the exact opposite of partiality or respect for people.

(See more JA Broadus,commentary a a Gospel Von Mateus[1886], pgs. 121–125; A. Plummer,AND Critical mi exegetical commentary a a Gospel After for S t. Lucas,ICC, 5th edition [1922], 283-89; R Bultmann,theology Von a nuevo2Bde. [1951], 1:18–19, 344–45;NIDOTE,3:1144–49; 4:111–13;NOT A THING,1:258–59.)

R. L.

it does not workNo. To see

Nekodani-koh'duh (Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (134)h5928,"mottled"). (1) Ancestor of a family of temple servants who returned to Jerusalem after the Babylonian captivity (Ezra 2:48; Nehemiah 7:50; called "Noeba" in 1 Ezra 5:31).

(2) Ancestors of a family of returning exiles who were unable to prove Israelite ancestry (Ezra 2:60; Nehemiah 7:62; 1 Ezra 5:37 [KJV, "Necodan"]).

Nemuel(Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (135)h5803,uncertain referral; not jewishChapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (136)H5804,"Nemuelite"). (1) Son of a grandson and eponymous ancestor of the Nemulelite clan (Numbers 26:12; 1 Chronicles 4:24); mentioned in the parallel passages (Gen 46:10; Exodus 6:15).

(2) Son of Eliab and descendant of (Numbers 26:9). Nemuel's brothers and were among the leaders who joined the Levite in his rebellion against and in the wilderness and subsequently suffered judgment (Numbers 16).

and pagesnee'fig (Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (137)h5863,means uncertain). (1) Son and great-grandson of (Exodus 6:21).

(2) Son of listed among the children born to him in (2 Sam. 5:15; 1 Chron. 3:7; 14:6).


nephilimnef'uh-lim (Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (138)h5872,possibly "fallen"). This name occurs only twice (Gen. 6:4; Num. 13:33; KJV, "giants," after the LXX. It seems to be derived from the verbNapal h5877,"to fall", perhaps alluding to their humiliation (fall from heaven or sin?) or to the fact that they ceased to exist (fallen = dead) when the lyrics were written. However, these etymological explanations are speculative and do not lead to satisfactory solutions.

There is OT evidence that the name implies great physical stature: they are said to be "of great stature" and are described as the ancestors of the Anakim (Numbers 13:32-33; see elsewhere). "as great as the Anakim" (Deuteronomy 2:20-21). It may also be noted that some giants are described as descendants of (2 Sam. 21:16, 18 et al.). Perhaps more evidence can be found in physical anthropological studies of Mediterranean peoples. These references to impressive physiques and bravery would be consistent with what is said about the Nephilim in Genesis 6:4, although there is some ambiguity in the passage.

The idea that the Nephilim arose from the coexistence between angels and mortals (cf. Gn 6,1-2) does not seem to fit with other biblical data (angels do not have sexual functions, Lk 20,34-35). See ANGEL; SONS OF Some would say that this interpretation is only possible if we place Scripture on the same level as Greek mythology, where anthropomorphic polytheism makes possible a physical union between gods and men. In any case, Genesis 6:4 is somewhat ambiguous: the Nephilim can be considered contemporaries of the marriages mentioned in the context or as products of the marriages. If they are simply contemporaneous and have no genetic connection to the marriages in v. 4, its mention only provides additional information about the conditions existing when the marriages took place.

When they are seen as products of marriages, the nature of the marriages is more important. The choice is between completely correct marriages and those that carry a certain stigma. Leroy Birney (inetc.13 [1970]: 43–52) argues that the Nephilim could be identified with "the sons of God" who were "powerful and famous rulers, as custom shows" and that the sin in the eye was polygamy. “Verse 4 does not refer to the products of polygamous marriages, but to their perpetrators” (ibid., 52). J. O. Buswell concludes that "There is nothing demonic or mythological in the whole passage. Moses merely points to the fact that powerful men of old, men of rank, were born of normal human marriage."systematic theology Von a cristiano Religion,2nd ed. [1968], 1:364-65). In a polytheistic world where mythological unions of gods and men were narrated, it is significant that Moses rejected the fanciful and humiliating mythological speculations of the time. (For other views, see articles by D.J.A. Clines, D.L. Petersen, and L. Eslinger in JSOT 13 [1979]: 33-46, 47-64, and 65-73; W.A. van Gemeren inWTJ43 [1980–81]: 320–48; R.S. Hendel inJBL106 [1987]: 13-26; see alsoabd,4:1072–73;DDD,618–20.)

W. B.

Bonitoneph'is. KJV Rev. form of Niphish (1 Ezra 5:21); old

neficnef'ish. Alternative KJV form of (1 Chronicles 5:19 only).

neficni-fish'uh-yeah. To see


Neftalimnef'thuh-lim. KJV NT Form of

Neftarneph'thahr. Greek transcriptionNeftar,the term he and his associates referred to a liquid for burnt offerings (2 Mac. 1:36; cf. v. 33). The text goes on to say that the term means "purification" and that most people used a different term,Petroleum,i.e. "Naphta" (KJV, "Nephi", after Vulg.), a Persian loanword also used in English to refer to some flammable liquids derived from petroleum.

Nephtoahnef-toh'uh (Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (139)h5886,maybe "overture", but some vocalizeChapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (140)). In the descriptions of the N boundary and the S boundary, reference is made to "the spring of the waters of Nephtoah" (Joshua 15:9; 18:15). The site is generally identified with the modern Lifta, c. 3 miles NW of some believe the MT reading,excited neptôaḪ,should be slightly modifiedto settleo similar (cf.HOLA,2:714), that is, H. "[Pharaoh's] spring, and that the site considered is the same as the 'Wells of Merneptah,' a site mentioned in Egyptian documents (cf.A NETWORK,258b; Y. Aharoni,Die Tierra Von a Bible: AND Historic Geography,Revolution. edition [1979], 184).



Of course not(Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (141)H5866[Ezra 2:50;Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (142)] miChapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (143)H5867[maiden. 7:52;Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (144)], derivation uncertain). KJV, TNIV and other versions, Nephusim. Name of ancestor or relative of a family of temple servants who returned from exile in Babylon (Ezra 2:50 [NRSV, "Nephisim"]; Nehemiah 7:42 [KJV, "Nephishesim"; NRSV, "Nephushesim"]; 1 Ezr 5:31 [KJV, "Naphisi"; NRSV, "Nephisim"). Some believe that the Nefussim were descendants of POWs related to the Ismaili tribe.

nomidday (Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (145)H5945,"Light, lamp", possibly short forChapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (146)H5950,"Yahweh is [my] light"; see (1) son of the descendant of the father and grandfather of the king (1 Chronicles 8:30 [NIV, next 33; 9:36, 39). Some believe that the genealogy here is not accurate and that this ner should be identified with the number 2 below.

(2) The son of a Benjamite descendant, uncle of Saul, and father of (1 Samuel 14:50-51 NIV; the Hebrew may mean that Saul's uncle was Abner rather than Ner). Elsewhere his name appears only in the phrase "Abner son of Ner" (26:5 et al.). For a discussion of genealogical connections, see

Nerajani-ray. RSV Rev. Father. form of (Rom 1:1).

Nereusnee'ri-yoos (NChapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (147)g3759,in gr. mythology the name of a sea god). A Roman Christian who was received by (Rom. 16:15) along with his unnamed sister. The common name for him among slaves suggests that Nereus was a Gentile freedman. (For a discussion of the names in Romans 16, see P. Lampe onDie romans Debate,edition K. P. Donfried, rev. edition [1991], 216–30.)

nergalnuhrgal (Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (148)H5946,of account A Mesopotamian god of the underworld who was worshiped when some inhabitants of this city-state were resettled by the Assyrian Empire and carried their worship to the provinces (2 Kings 17:30). According to Babylonian tradition, she was the wife of Ereshkigal, the queen of the underworld (cf.A NETWORK,103-4). Nergal was also considered the god of plague, disease, and various calamities, but he could be appeased with incantations. He is sometimes identified with the planet Mars. Temples were dedicated to him in several other places (Larsa, Isin, Assur). Nergal became a theophoric element found in personal names such as (cf.DDD,621–22.)


Nergal-Sharezernuhr'gal-shu-ree'zuhr (Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (149)Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (150)h5947,by acc.Nergal-shar-usur,"May [the god] protect the king"). Name of a high official (see with the Babylonian army in 587 BCE (Jeremiah 39:3). Since the name appears twice in this verse, some believe that the first mention refers to a different person, the rulers of (Sinmagir), but the Hebrew text is difficult: the NIV has "Nergal-Sharezer of Samgar, Nebo-Sarsekim" while the NRSV translates "Nergal-sharezer, Samgar-nebo, Sarsechim" (for a full discussion, see W. McKane,AND Critical mi exegetical commentary a Jeremiah,ITC, 2 vols. [1986-96], 2:974-76, concluding that only one person is mentioned, namely Nergal-Sharezer of Samgar/Sinmagir). At any rate, when there was a breach in the city's defenses, he was among the officers commanding the last, which he and other officers had brought out of jail and entrusted to him (39:13-14). Nergal-Sharezer was often identified with Neriglissar, a soldier who, according to Berossus, was Neriglissar's son-in-law, disposed of his brother-in-law and reigned for some years (560-556). Some scholars exclude the second mention of Nergal-Sharezer as a textual corruption.


Neri(NORTEChapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (151)g3760,from hebrewChapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (152)H5945;see the son of Melkis contained in the GENEALOGY of Luke (Luke 3:27). In this passage, Neri appears as the father of, but in other places Sealtiel's father is said to be Jeconiah, i.e. (1 Chron. 3:17; Matt. 1:12). Attempts to explain the discrepancy often relate to Jer. 22:30: "Write this man as if he were childless, a man who will not prosper in his lifetime, for none of his descendants will prosper, none will sit on David's throne or reign in Judah." For example, some think that Luke omits Jeconiah as legally incapable of being part of the messianic lineage. (For a summary of other suggestions, cf.abd,4:1075.)

no diving(Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (153)H5949miChapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (154)H5950,"Yahweh is [my] light"). son of Masseias; he was the father of (Jer. 32:12 et al; Bar. 1:1 [KJV, "Neriah"; RSV, "Neraiah"]) and (Jer. 51:59-64). Baruch was a friend and scribe, while Seraiah served as the king's staff officer and, on one occasion, acted as Jeremiah's messenger. It is likely that Nerias himself held an important position in society or at court.

Neronihr'oh. Nero Claudius Drusus Germanicus was the fifth emperor of (54-68 AD). He was the son of Julia Agrippina, daughter of Germanicus; Nero's father was Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus, who had been consul in 32. L. L. Domitius Ahenobarbus at birth in 37, was given the name Nero at twelve, when he was adopted by

In the year 49 Agrippina became the wife of her uncle, the Emperor Claudius, in his third marriage. She was then thirty-four years old and he was fifty-nine, but the age difference was not without influence in Agrippina's ruthless schemes, for Claudius, in many ways a capable and intelligent man, was a willing swindler for women and men. ambitious freedmen. he circled himself. He too was a lifelong victim of a form of cerebral palsy, a fact which explains why many of his strange personal traits have been enthusiastically enumerated by ancient authorities. To contemporary observers, his lifespan does not appear to be long; hence the swiftness of Agrippina's conspiracy.

With the help of three men, the freedman Pallas the Philosopher (Nero's tutor) and Donkey, the powerful commander of the Praetorian Guard, Agrippina promoted her son Nero to the imperial household. Claudius had a son by his disgraced wife Messalina Britannicus, who was four years Nero's junior, and Agrippina's first step, though still young, was to make Nero Britannicus her tutor. When Claudius died, presumably from poisoning, in AD 54, Agrippina, with the same allies, managed to bring the young Nero into the line of succession. In his inaugural address, no doubt written by Seneca, she promised to pronounce on the principles that invested autocracy in the form of republican and constitutional government.

For the first five years of his rule, Nero was content to let the capable Seneca and Burrus rule the empire, and that5 yearsFive years: he became a legend in the provinces for his good management and good order. In the capital itself, and this is the main theme of the living, Rome-centered history of this period, there was a devilish mix of murder and intrigue. Agrippina, who was contemplating serving as co-regent with her teenage son, was quickly disillusioned. Marcus Salvius Otho, who would briefly become emperor in 69 ("the year of the four emperors"), encouraged Nero to free himself from the imperious rule of his mother. Agrippina responded by bringing Britannicus forward. The unfortunate prince was immediately poisoned (AD 55) and Agrippina withdrew. Poppaea, wife of Otho, with one eye on Nero, tricked Nero into murdering her mother in 59, and then masterminded the successful elimination of Octavia, Nero's wife.

At this time there were some capable men in the provinces (doubtless under Seneca and Burrus). Galba in Spain and Syria was destined to occupy the imperial position under the Four Emperors from AD 69; Vespasian would survive and establish the Flavian dynasty. In Britain, Suetonius Paulinus crushed Boudicca's fierce rebellion, and Corbulo did an excellent job on the volatile Parthian frontier, Rome's long and intractable defensive problem.

Nero, on the other hand, got up. His domineering mother had died, Burrus, the competent Prefect of the Guard, died at the age of 62, apparently of natural causes. Seneca, long horrified by the compromising role to which he had been called, withdrew when his only stable colleague was removed. Octavia divorced and was promptly killed. Poppaea, now married to Nero, bore him a short-lived daughter in 63. Nero, believing himself an artist and perhaps having some talent, devoted his time to poetry, even singing on the public stage, and sports. He tried to replace gladiator games, Rome's main proletarian occupation, with Greek running and athletic competitions, a project in which he failed.

With those who had somehow killed or deposed him, the worst of the young emperor was revealed. Ofonius Tigellinus, the new prefect of the Praetorian Guard, was a bad influence, and Nero had his own share of vanity, cruelty, and lust for power. He viewed the Principality as a tyranny. None of his predecessors, said he,

Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (155)

Marble bust of Emperor Nero.

realized what they could do (Suetonius,Nero37). Like Claudius, he began to surround himself with greedy and arrogant freedmen. The costly wars in Britain and Armenia were followed by a serious and deliberate devaluation of the currencies. The hated law of treason, now revived, was used to decimate the ranks of the Senate and the aristocracy.

In July 64, a fire broke out in a slum near the Capena Gate and destroyed half of Rome. It was a measure of Nero's growing desperation and unpopularity. He felt it was necessary to find scapegoats, as there was a dangerous rumor that Nero himself, in a spirit of rampant vandalism, had burnt down his capital to clear the way for his own enemies. megalomaniac construction plans. He took the opportunity presented by the devastation to begin planning and building his infamous Golden House. The scapegoats, however, were the Christians, whose withdrawal from the narrow confines of pagan society had earned them the hostility of the Roman mob. This began the active persecution of the Christian church. It is not known whether the ban on Christians bearing only the first name became law at that time or at any other time during Nero's remaining five years, but it can certainly be said that it was in Nero's beginning that the law was followed. suppression of the church by state policy. It would remain like this for almost three centuries, sporadically revived.

Rome as a whole correctly recognized the omens. Such a person in the imperial position threatened ups and downs, and Caius Calpurnius Piso hatched a far-reaching conspiracy in 65. It was a misordered conspiracy that was betrayed and suppressed. Seneca and Lucan the poet were among the hosts of the great estate who died during Nero's panicked measures to stamp out dissent and opposition. Nero, now paranoid in suspicion of him, struck again, and Sorano perished after Poppaea's death, the result of his own cruel cruelty in AD 66.

It was in the year 66 that the terrible Jewish revolt broke out (see sending Mucian to govern Nero, Vespasian withdrew from this position and sent him S to suppress the great rebellion. Whatever prestige Nero at that time by founding Armenia might have won when an intermediate kingdom on the north-eastern frontier was more than destroyed by the dire threat in Palestine, Nero displayed his growing irresponsibility by allowing Rome to control his freedman Helios and embarking on an extensive tour of Greece in AD 67. His Jesters reached new heights when he, of course, triumphed in the Greek games, at the same time Nero ordered his skilled Eastern general Corbulo and two popular governors of Germany to commit suicide.

That madness was crucial. In the spring of 68, one of the Gallic governors, Caius Julius Vindex, rose up against Nero at the same time as Servius Sulpicius Galba in Spain and Clodius Macer in Africa. The Vindex revolt was put down by Verginius Rufus, the loyalist governor of Germany, but the Praetorian Guard in Rome declared in favor of Galba, and on June 9, 68, Nero committed suicide. The meaning of your last words.Se an artist death(“What kind of artist dies in me?”) has been the subject of much speculation.

There is no doubt that Nero was a cruel and unbalanced man. More than forty years ago, Arthur Weigall, better known as an Egyptologist than a classical historian, wrote a popular defense of the emperor.emperor Von ROM[1930]), but the consensus of expert opinion calls him a villain. A corrupt lineage, particularly on her father's side, a bad wife on Agrippina's mother's side, an oppressed and perverted childhood and adolescence, followed by the temptations of absolute power in a context of sycophants and formative freedmen would have tested the strength and integrity of the best. and more stable characters.

In addition to malevolence, there was also a strong element of mental instability in Nero's composition. His devotion to art was real, but accompanied, as such devotion can be, by a tendency to ostentation and self-aggrandizement. A savage zeal of any other eminence, be it rank or excellence in war, peace, literature, or wherever humanity shows its worth, brought about by persecution, oppression, and murder. Rome was shocked by the unworthy self-portrait of the young emperor for the Greeks. And when the soldiers, the nobility, the proletariat, the philosophers, the artists and all the other elements of society seemed to have united against Nero, there can be no doubt of the general aversion.

The strange myth of the return of Nero, on which Weigall bases his perverse judgment of his lamented popularity, was a Greek invention. The verdict of the official quoted in Tacitus 15:67) is final: "I began to hate you when, after murdering your mother and wife, you became a jockey, a farrier, and an arsonist."

(Besides Suetonius and Tacitus, an important ancient source is Dio Cassius,ROM. hist.61-63. See also B.W. Henderson,Die life mi principalities Von a emperor Nero[1903]; M. Grant,Nero[1970]; K. R. Bradley,Suetonius life Von Nero: em Historic commentary[1978]; MT Griffin,Nero: Die movie Von and Dynasty[1984]; A. Holland,Nero: Die man Behind a myths[2000]; E. Champlin,Nero[2003]; H. Hermann,Nero: 1 Biography[2005]; A. Decaux,Die Revolution Von a Cruz: Nero et Is he around? baptize[2007].)

E. M.

Nervenuhr'vuh. AD 96–98 C. Emperor Marcus Cocceius Nerva is born c. AD 35 he became a confidant and was subsequently made consul twice: 71 and 90. After Domitian's assassination, the conspirators placed Nerva on the throne. The new emperor was sincerely interested in freedom and justice, but he was unable to restore political stability, and in any case, his health was deteriorating rapidly. A few months before his death he adopted his successor as Emperor in 98. (See more A. Garzetti,Nerve[1950]; J. D. Grainger,Nerve mi a romano successor Crisis Von BODIES 96–99[2003];obsessive compulsive disorder1038–39.)

Niño.In the OT there are frequent references to birds and their nests, and the Hebrew word for "nest"chica h7860,can be used figuratively to refer to a person's house (Job 29:18; cf. Verbklein H7873 ,"forNest, make a nest”, Jer. 22:23). The remarkable construction and inaccessibility of the birds' nests was a wonder for people in ancient times and today. In the New Testament, Jesus only mentions it when he compares their homelessness to the fact that foxes have holes and birds of the air have nests (Gr.kataskēnosis G2943,Esther. 8:20; Luke 9:58).


Red.The Hebrew termred h8407,"Net, grid" may refer to a grid used in furniture and architectural design. Surrounding the altar of the tabernacle was a grating or grating of bronze (Exodus 27:4-5; 38:4). another termśĕbākā h8422,refers to the capitals of the two bronze pillars in Solomon's TEMPLE, which were also designed as nets (1 Kings 7:17ff.). see also

But nets are mainly mentioned in the OT in connection with hunting and fishing. These activities served less for sport than for subsistence. Gazelle, deer, roe deer, and ibex were the best food among surface creatures, and partridge among birds. The nets were mainly needed for fishing, since quantities sufficient for commercial purposes could not be caught in any other way. In the biblical story, fishing was limited to inland waters because the Mediterranean Sea did not offer convenient opportunities.

Nets were sometimes used to catch wild animals (Psalm 25:15; 35:7-8; Proverbs 29:5; Isaiah 51:20 [hereMicmar H4821];Hesek. 19:8). At other times, the snare was used to catch birds (Proverbs 1:17). Still other passages speak of fish to catch (Ecclesiastes 9:12H5182];Have. 1:15-17 Most Old Testament references to nets symbolize spiritual threats. They are figurative of deceit (Eccl. 7:26 NRSV), blind flattery (Prov. 29:5), exploitation of the righteous by the wicked (Ps. 9:15; 10:9; 35:7-8; 57 : 6 140:5; 141:10; Mic. 7:2; Hab. 1:15-17) and punishment (Job 19:6; Ps. 66:11; Lam. 1:13; Ezekiel 12:13; 32 :3; ​​Hosea 7:12).

The NT terminology for nets is limited to fishing and describes three types: (1) The casting netG312,Mate. 4:18; but the more general termdiktyon G1473in vv. 20-21), when she threw herself onto the water, she assumed a circular shape when she landed on the water's surface. Immediately, the weighted perimeter would rapidly sink, causing the net to take on a shape described as conical, bell-shaped, or pear-shaped. Thus, all the fish would be trapped under the net. This method proved particularly useful in shallow water. Using this type of network required an unusual level of skill and is,

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Cast the nets of the region around the Sea of ​​Galilee.

therefore especially appropriate in connection with Christ's invitation to become "fishers of men" (verse 19), a task that requires spiritual capacity.

(2) The trawl netG4880"Seine, Kehrnetz") was held to the surface of the water by floats on one side, while the other side was held to the bottom of the lake by weights. A vertical mesh wall was thus formed between its two ends. If one end of the net was tied to the shore, one boat would carry the other in a great arc, dragging any underwater life in its path until it all washed up on shore. On the other hand, if both ends were attached to the boats, the boats would be maneuvered to form a circular shape with the net, which would then be pulled ashore with the fastener. The trawls were often immense, and the term could be used figuratively for vastness and scope. They searched for all kinds of fish, large and small, exquisite and worthless, alive and dead. How fitting that the Lord chose this method to describe a meeting of judgment in the kingdom of heaven (Matthew 13:47).

(3) The general word for network,Dictionary,is used in Lucas. 5:2-6 and John 21:6-11. This word, which could include any of the above nets, probably has in mind the trawl in these two passages; but in Matt. 4:20-21 and Mark 1:18-19 This is how the cast nets are represented.

R. L.

Netaimni-tay'im (Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (157)H5751,"Plant"). An unknown location, probably near where some royal potters lived (1 Chronicles 4:23; KJV has "plants and hedges" for "Netaim and Gederah"). see also

Nathanaelni-than'ee-uhl. KJV Form of

Netanelni-than'uhl (Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (158)H5991,"God gave"; cf. etc.). NIV Netaneel. (1) son of Zuar; he was a tribal chief who led a company of 54,500 (Numbers 2:5-6; 10:15). Nathanael was among those who helped enumerate the Israelites (1:8) and brought offerings to the Lord for the dedication of the tabernacle (7:18-23).

(2) Fourth son and older brother of (1 Chronicles 2:14).

(3) One of the priests appointed to blow the trumpet when David brought the Ark of the Covenant to Jerusalem (1 Chronicles 15:24).

(4) father of Shemaiah; The latter was a Levite and a scribe in the organization of David's priestly ministry (1 Chronicles 24:6).

(5) Third son of in the list of the departments of the Kohite gatekeepers in the reign of David (1 Chronicles 26:4).

(6) One of the five officers sent by the king to "teach in the cities of Judah" (2 Chronicles 17:7).

(7) A chief of the Levites during the king's reign, together with his brothers and Nathanael, provided five thousand offerings (lambs) and five oxen for the renewed celebration of (2 Chr. 35:9; 1 Ezra 1:9 [ KJV, "Nathanael"]).

(8) One of the descendants of whom he agreed to leave his foreign wives (Ezra 10:22; 1 Ezra 9:22 [KJV and NRSV, "Nathanael"]). Some think it could be the same as number 10 below.

(9) The head of the priestly family at the time of the High Priest (Nehemiah 12:12).

(10) A priestly musician who attended the dedication of the rebuilt wall of Jerusalem in (Nehemiah 12:36); His name is one of several that appear in the

W. B.

Netanyaneth'uh-ni'uh (Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (159)H5992miChapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (160)h5993,"Yahweh gave"; cf. etc.). (1) Son of Elisama and father of the latter, assassinated the one who had been appointed governor by (2 Kings 25:23, 25; Jeremiah 41:1-2 et al.). The family was of royal blood.

(2) One of the sons who assisted his father in the prophetic ministry of MUSIC; he was the head of the fifth company of temple musicians, designated by lot (1 Chronicles 25:2, 12).

(3) One of the five officers sent by the King "to teach in the cities of Judah" (2 Chronicles 17:8).

(4) Shelemiah's son and father of the latter was an official of the king who was sent there to read prophecies to the princes of Judah (Jeremiah 36:14).

(5) One of Bani's sons who agreed to leave his strange wives (1 Ezra 9:34 [KJV, "Nathaniah"]; apparently the same as in the parallel, Ezra 10:39).

W. B.

will notneth'in-im (Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (161), pl. sinceChapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (162)h5987,"given, donated"). The KJV uses incorrect transliterationwill notitself a plural form) to represent a post-exilic Hebrew term translated "temple servants" in modern versions (1 Chronicles 9:2; Ezra 2:43 et al.; Nehemiah 3:26 et al.). It usually transliterates the word, but by 1 Chr. 9:2 it is translateddedo-menoi("given"). First Ezra (1 Ezra 1:3 et al.) and 11.5.1 §128; 11.5.2 §134) call themhierodouloi,"holy servants" or "temple slaves."

Ezra 8:20 gives the most precise indication of the origin of the Nethinim. That they assisted the Levites is consistent with the general account of David's organization (1 Chronicles 23-24) in preparation for the TEMPLE. Nethinim means "the bestowed." Just as the Levites as a group "given all" to the Lord of the people of Israel (Numbers 8:16), the Levites were given as "gifts" to their sons (verse 19; the term here iscan't"given", pass. ptc. sinceis that h5989,"give"). David seems to have followed this pattern in appointing another group to help the Levites. The order listed in 1 Chr. 9:2 and Neh 11:3 is "Israel, priests, Levites, and Nethinim" (the latter passage adds: "seed of Solomon's servants"; the isolation of such a hereditary group draws a natural parallel with the group that gave rise to David).

Presumably the Nethinim were not Levites. G. F. OehlerVon a alternative Testament[1884], 376) assumes after Aben Ezra that the Gibeonites (see were the original Nethinim (Josh. 9:27). special service. Perhaps they were slaves acquired in war. (The fact that the Nethinim are not mentioned in the so-called -P document [see III] is strong evidence against the theory of the emergence of this document in the post-exilic period, cf. G. L. Archer,AND study Von alternative Testament Introduction,Revolution. ed [1994], 170.)

Apart from 1 Chronicles 9:2, the Nethinim are fully mentioned in Ezra and Nehemiah. Ezra 2:43-58 lists the heads of families of the Nethinim who returned with them, and the descendants of Solomon's servants numbered 392. The Nethinim lived in their own cities (verse 70). Under Ezra, a contingent of Nethinim returned (7:7) and were exempted from the tax (verse 24). Ezra 8 reports sorting in preparation for return. Two hundred and twenty Nethinims were included (verse 20).

The Nethinim are mentioned in Nehemiah's organization to rebuild the Wall. They are said to have lived on the hill and repaired part of the wall (Nehemiah 3:26). Malkijah's repair work extended to the house of the Nethinim (verse 31). l coffee with milkCritical mi exegetical commentary a a books Von Esra mi Nehemiah,ICC [1913], 87ff.) believes that v. 31 must predate the writing of Chronicles and therefore attests to the existence of the Nethinim before that time. They cannot be dismissed as part of an ahistorical reconstruction of the chronicler. The Nethinims are also among those who made a covenant to consecrate themselves to God (10:28). Finally, they are mentioned in Nehemiah's account of his attempt to populate Jerusalem with pure Jews, according to the list of those who returned from Babylon (11:3, 21). (See more M. Haran inTELEVISION11 [1961]: 159–69; B. A. Levine einJBL82 [1963]: 207–212; H. G. M. Williamson,Ezra-Nehemiah,WBC 16 [1985], 35–36.)

W. B.

And topáby toh'fuh (Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (163)H5756,VonChapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (164)h5752,"drip, pour"; not jewishChapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (165)h5743,"Netopathy"). A city mentioned later in a post-exilic list (Ezra 2:22); the parallel connects the inhabitants of Netophah and Bethlehem (Nehemiah 7:26). The people of both cities were descended from the patriarch Judah (1 Chr. 2:4-5), (v. 9; NRSV, Chelubai), (vv. 19, 50) and (vv. 51, 54).

The royal city of Netophah is not part of the Biblical narrative, but individual Netophatites are mentioned in various Old Testament passages. Two belonged to an elite group of powerful warriors (2 Sam. 23:28-29; 1 Chron. 11:30); two more were among his twelve monthly divisional army commanders (1 Chronicles 27:13, 15); another was an army officer named 586 B.C. (2 Kings 25:23; however, the parallel in Jeremiah 40:8, which may retain the original reading, speaks of "the sons of Ephai the Netophathite"); finally, one was the grandfather of an important Levite who settled in Jerusalem (9:16). There were also fifty-six people from Netofah who returned to Palestine in 537 (Ezra 2:22; fifty-five according to 1 Ezra 5:18; cf. Neh. 7:26); and the Levite singers who participated in the dedication of the walls of Jerusalem in 444 are said to have come “from the villages of the Netophathites” (Nehemiah 12:28).

Although the exact location of Netofa remains uncertain, it is evident that it was near Bethlehem (1 Chronicles 2:54). Since it appears between Bethlehem and (Ezra 2:22; Nehemiah 7:26), some have identified Netofah with the fortress of Ramat Rahel south of Jerusalem (cf. J. Simons,geographically mi topographic Text Von a alternative Testament[1959], 339); but that community did not develop until after the time of David, and the lists of Ezra and Nehemiah do not appear to be in strict geographical order. Its most likely location is Khir-bet Bedd Faluṣ, 3 miles away. SE of Bethlehem, where the biblical name for the coming spring still survives, en-Naṭuf (ibid.).


Nessel.This English term (referring to any of the various plants of the genus is used five times in the KJV, three times forhowl H3017(Job 30:7; Prov. 24:31b; Zephaniah 2:9) and transmitted twiceqimmôś H7853(Isa. 34:13; Hosea 9:6; the Hebrew term also appears in Prov. 24:31a, where it is translated “thorns.”) Both Hebrew words refer to weeds, and it is difficult to determine if it refers to a specific plant.

The plant mentioned in Job 30:7 (NRSV, “under the nettles they crouch”; NIV, “[they] crouch in the thicket”) may be thatAcanthustall perennial plants that grow like weeds in eastern countries. The guy could have beenAND. dornig,but this isAND. Syracusecommonly seen in Palestine. These plants grow large enough to provide shelter and shade for animals. (Other suggestions include "chickpeas," "wild artichoke," and "vetch.")

In the case of "possessed by nettles" (Zeph. 2:9 NRSV), the translation could easily be simply "weeds" (cf. NIV) to give the text an air of desolation. The plant called nettleNessel combustionthe great nettle,Ver Dioica?or the roman nettle,Nesselthe image in Isa. 34:13 and Hos. 9:6. Nettles are common weeds in gardens and fields; They can be seen today, growing in and around the ruins. (See alsoffb152–53, 184–86.)


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Thistles in a field in Israel.

Red.This English term is used primarily in most Bible translations to represent the Hebrewśĕbākā h8422,which serves to describe the bronze net attached to the capitals of the two great bronze columns, Jakin and Boaz, in front of the TEMPLE of (1 Kings 7:17-20, 41-42; 2 Chronicles 4:12-13; Jeremiah 52:22-23). See The same word is used of the latticework in the upper room through which he fell and was mortally wounded (2 Kings 1:2). another termred h8407,often used to describe catching birds or small animals (eg, Psalm 25:15; 35:8; see Also used (in combination withH5126,“work”) in reference to the grating of the altar of burnt offering (Exodus 27:4-5; 38:4). This is seen by some as a grating running across the altar and by others as a step going around the altar and facing a bronze grating. (The KJV's use of "net" in Isaiah 19:9 reflects a misunderstanding of the unusual wordhour h2583,which probably refers to white cloth or linen.)

personal computer

Neu, News.The usual ancient Hebrew word for "new" isḥādāš H2543,what does "new" or "fresh" mean; This adjective can mean novelty both qualitatively and chronologically. It comes in terms like new king (Exodus 1:8), new grain offering (Leviticus 23:16), new house (Deuteronomy 20:5), new wife (24:5), new ropes (Judges 15:13), new cart (1 Sam. 6:7), new robe (1 Kings 11:29-30), new song (Ps. 33:3 et al.), new name (Isa. 62:2), new heavens and new earth (65:17; 66:22; see HEAVEN, new covenant (Jeremiah 31:31; see COVENANT, The new heart/spirit (Ezekiel 18:31; 36:26)) From the list above, the difficulty in distinguishing between quality and tense is self-evident, since often what is new in nature is also new in appearance emphasizes temporal importance, while those in poetic and prophetic literature generally emphasize qualitative. This word is also sometimes used without an express noun, but when the context must provide (Lev. 26:10; Deut. 32:17; 2 Sam. 21:16 et al.), it rarely reaches predicate position (Job 29:20; Eccl. 1:10; Lam. 3:23). ) adjective that can be translated as "n new"Wait h3269,it occurs twice (Judges 15:15 [NIV, "fresh jaw"]; Isaiah 1:6 [NIV, "open wound"].h1375,“something new” happens only once (Numbers 16:30). (To seeNIDOTE,2:30–37.)

Not NT, or Greek adjectivewill prophesy G4710,“new, recent” occurs once (Hebrews 10:20), as does the related adverbwill prophesy G4711,"recently" (Acts 18:2). another adjectiveagnafos G47(literally "uncarded"), it is applied to a new cloth, that is, not yet wrinkled (Mt. 9:16; Mk. 2:21).

However, the two common Greek words arePrices G2785mineos G3742.It has often been assumed that the former is regularly used to emphasize qualitative novelty and the latter indicates chronological novelty in the sense of modernity or youth.Pricesused in the NT of those entities associated with the KINGDOM OF and the age to come, which will be radically different from what characterizes the present age.neosit is often used to refer to the young members of their churches, both male and female (1 Timothy 5:1, 2, 11, 14; Titus 2:4, 6; cf. 1 Peter 5:5). .

The former distinction betweenPricesmineoswas particularly argued by R.C. ditchVon a nuevo Testament,9th ed. [1880], 219-25), but it is not recognized by all. Those who deny this base their argument primarily on the apparently interchangeable use of the two words in the NT. Matthew talks about the new wineneos(Matthew 9:17) when referring to the new wine as in a different contextPrices(Matthew 26:29). Paul in Eph. 4:24 commands the Christian to put thisPricesman as he spoke of him in Colossians 3:10neosGuy. The writer of Hebrews refers to the "new covenant" but uses bothPricesmineos(Hebrews 9:15; 12:24). Furthermore, the papyri appear to use the two words virtually interchangeably. but this is possiblePricesIt is a more literary term and perhaps for this reason this adjective is preferred in theological contexts. (See R.A. Harrisville,Die concept Von News no a nuevo Testament[1960];NOT A THING,2:669–78;abd,4:1086-88.) See also NEW COMMANDMENT;


nuevo Birthday.See REGENERATION.

nuevo Offer.This phrase (Gr.sin entoleit appears for the first time in the words attributed to Jesus in the sermon in the upper room reported by the fourth evangelist (Jn 13:34). In an apparent reference to the Decalogue (see Jesus said: "A new commandment I give you, that you love one another." Then he added: "By this all will know that you are my disciples, if you love one another" (Verses 35) The commandment to LOVE God and neighbor was not new, as emphasized by the Pentateuch and the prophets (especially Hosea) and used by Jesus as a summary of (Deut. 6:5; Hosea 11:4; Mt. 22:37, cf. Rom 13:9, Galatians 5:14, James 2:8).

Although Jesus did not establish the concept of the God-man relationship as a loving relationship, he did re-emphasize it and put it into sharper perspective. The characteristic emphasis of the OT is on obedience, the NT on love, and yet it remains a commandment, an obligation. Is heḥesed H2876or OT love covenant (see GRACE; because the Greek term marriedfiles g27,that emerges as the important word in the Christian ethos. It means a discriminating love that results from choice. The new is in the source and nature of that love; it is the supreme criterion of the relationship with God (1 Jn 5,3; cf. Lk 10,27). (See more V.P. Furnish,Die Amar domain no a nuevo Testament[1972]; R. F. Collins,cristiano Moral: Biblical foundations[1986], 101–36; RB Hays,Die Moral Vista Von a nuevo Testament: community, Cruz, nuevo Creation: AND Contemporary Introduction for nuevo Testament moral principle[1996], cap. 6.)


nuevo Tierra.See ESCHATOLOGY; NEW SKY.

nuevo Hill.The book speaks twice of the "New Gate [of the house] of Yahweh"apostle-yhwh hehadash,jr. 36:10; in 26:10, only The entrance to this gate was the scene of an actual examination of Jeremiah's sermon (26:7-16). Here was also the room that belonged to the secretary of Shaphan's son, from which "Baruch read the words of Jeremiah from the scroll to all the people in the temple" (36:10). This verse also indicates that the gate was in the upper (inner) court of the temple (see IV.B.7), leading some to believe that "New Gate" was the name given to the temple after hearing to the king (2 Kings 15:35; 2 Chron 27:3; cf.abd,4:1095). It may have been to the south of the courtyard, but its exact location (not to be confused with the New Gate, built into the northwestern wall of Jerusalem in modern times) is unknown.

nuevo Paradise.See ESCHATOLOGY; NEW SKY.

nuevo Jerusalem.The supreme center where the glorified redeemed of all ages abide eternally with God and His holy angels in utter ecstasy, after all aspects of resurrection and judgment and the creation of a new heaven and a new earth.

It is called "the new Jerusalem" (Ap 3,12; 21,2), "holy city" (21,2), "great" (21,10), "heavenly" (Heb 12,22). "above" (Galatians 4:26) and the "wife of the Lamb" (Revelation 21:9). It is the city sought (Hebrews 11:10) and believers await it today (13:14). "Heavenly" emphasizes its heavenly origin and quality as opposed to the earthly. Contrast the "new" with the "old" as it is the glorious destiny of which this city is a type. "Holy" is her character in contrast to the often profane and profane Jerusalem (Rev 17-18; see She is the "bride" as the redeemed inhabitants collectively embrace her as a city. She is in her the "mother" of believers who live their lives from on high, abide by their rules, and have their citizenship in heaven (Philippians 3:20) Likewise, Jerusalem or Judah was the "mother" of the Israelites, having centered their lives and interests there (Isaiah 50:1; Ezekiel 19:2; Hosea 2:2; 4:5).

The city should not be understood only as a symbol of the redeemed; differs from them (Rev 21:24-27; 22:2-5). Even if the king (Christ) and the redeemed have literal substance in glorified bodies, the city is probably literal. Also, the new heavens and new earth are obviously just as literal as the old ones, and of course this applies to the new Jerusalem as well (see HEAVEN, size descriptions and other things also suggest this.

The size of the city given in Apoc. 21 has about 1,400 km. in length, width and height. Scientists debate whether its shape is that of a cube or a pyramid. Only the redeemed, all of whom are overcomers by faith (1 John 5:4, 5; Revelation 21:7), are there. It is made of precious stones. The streets are made of gold, and since God makes all things new (21:5), it is irrelevant to object that gold is a poor paving material. The names of the twelve tribes on the gates and the twelve apostles on the foundations represent both Israel and the church as gifts. Kings give glory and honor to the city (21:24), evidently in the sense that they offer the glory they had to Christ, or share his glory, and reflect it in their individuality and capacity. All conditions are final.

The OT anticipates "new heavens and a new earth" (Isaiah 65:17; 66:22), but nowhere does it use the specific phrase "new Jerusalem." However, it speaks of a glorious Jerusalem (Isaiah 52:1; 54:11-12; 62:5, 7). Amillennialists equate the latter with Rev. 21-22 the same. Premillennialists generally see a glorified millennial Jerusalem between the Second Advent and the final state (they also point to other passages such as Jeremiah 31:40; 33:16; Micah 4:1-4; Zechariah 14).

Where does the New Jerusalem fit in time? Some place it immediately after the return of Christ and consider the thousand years (Rev. 20) to symbolize the current age (Amillennialists). Others see this age as entering a golden age before the coming of Christ (postmillennialists). Most premillennialists view the order as follows: SECOND COMING, the millennial reign of Christ on earth (see Great White Throne Judgment, New Heavens and New Earth with New Jerusalem. In the latter group, some believe that the New Jerusalem described in 21:9-22:5 is the millennial city on earth. Others have hung it over the millennium alongside earthly Jerusalem as an abode for resurrected saints who have already entered their eternal state but have access to the earth to reign with Christ Still others say that the New Jerusalem presented here is exactly as in 21:1-8,afterthe creation of the new heaven and the new earth. The states described have supreme and eternal bliss in mind. (See G.N.H. Peters,Die Theokratisch Kingdom,[1952], 3:32ff.; J. D. Pfingsten,Things for For[1958]; AJ McClain,Die Ambitious Von a Kingdom[1968], 442-515.) See also ESCHATOLOGY III.J.


nuevo man, nuevo Until.See MAN, NEW.

nuevo Mon.This expression nowadays often refers to that phase of the MOON when its dark side faces the earth. The Hebrew termcasa H2544(Willḥādāš H2543,"new") refers to the day the crescent moon first appears at night, and specifically to the festival of the month celebrated on that day (Numbers 10:10ff). As an extension, it can be used as a synonym forAgain h3732,“month” (i.e., the period between new moons), especially in the names of the months (eg, 1 Kings 6:1; see A day within a month is identified by the use ofyou go(usually not with the prepositionUEGive reference (Gen. 7:11 et al.; sometimes withb,as in Numbers 10:11; sometimes both, as in Lev. 16:29). Of course, the passage of time would be counted on new moons, just as years would be counted after New Year's Day. The synodic period of the Moon (from conjunction to conjunction with the Sun) is not a precise number of days, and the angle of its orbit with respect to the horizon varies with the seasons; therefore, its reappearance could not be predicted with absolute certainty. This could explain the two-day festival of 1 Sam. 20:5. There are rules for observing the crescent moon, since the exact dates of the parties depend on it.

The new moon festival is connected to the festival in several places (2 Kings 4:23; Isaiah 66:23; Ezekiel 46:1-6 [of temple worship]; Amos 8:5 [of community life ]). The logical sequence of Sabbaths, new moons, and FESTIVALS (congregations) is often used to summarize religious observances (1Ch. 23:31; 2Ch. 2:4; 8:13; 31:3; Neh. 10:33). ; Yes. 1:13,14; He's. 45:17; Hos 2:11). The observance of the new moon festival, however, derives from a basic rhythm of rural life independent of the Sabbath and with which it was incommensurable in calendar terms; and other festivals defined by days of the month but related to the seasonal (ie solar) rhythm. See calendar.

The importance of the new moon lies in the fact that it is generally easy to observe (the night of the full moon is not so easy to determine), and partly in a sense of relief at its appearance, animated by superstition and mythology (cf. .S.Nilsson,Primitive Tempo Calculate[1920], 151 ss.; G. Dalman,construction mi Sit down no Palestine[1927], 1:10ff.). Thus, the new moon was traditionally celebrated with a party in the local community, accompanied by religious ceremonies. When the king did not attend the table on such an occasion, the king assumed that ritual uncleanness was the reason (1 Sam. 20:5, 26).

In a more sophisticated society, these vacations can be exhausting; Amos derided the employment of greedy merchants who resented the disruption of their activities, an occupation that had no qualms about making a profit (Amos 8:4-6). Isaiah paints a different side of the picture: the upper classes enjoy frequent religious ceremonies to satisfy their self-esteem (Isaiah 1:13-14). J. Morgenstern (inHUCA3 [1926]: 86-87) characterizes the new moon as a "convenience rather than a formal system of classification", certainly a false antithesis, as is his definition of "month" as a measure of time and "season" as a measure of time establishing a date (inHUCA1 [1924]: 18).


nuevo Fourth part.ver

nuevo Testament.The collection of books that make up the Christian canon. See CANON (NT). It consists of twenty-seven books, including the four gospels, Acts, twenty-one epistles, and the book of Revelation. The purpose of this article is to provide a brief description of the historical situation from which this collection of books arose, an overview of its content, and a discussion of its authority.

•Historical context


(Video) The Curse Of Canaan: A Demonology Of History by Eustace Mullins audiobook


• The Acts of the Apostles

• Epistles of Paul

• Other epistles of the New Testament

• The Book of Revelation

• Authority of the New Testament

UE. Historic Fund.The first place in any examination of NT history is to consider its relationship to the OT. There are two aspects to this consideration: (1) the OT estimate found in the NT, and (2) the essential historical and theological connection between them. There is no doubt that the Lord's high respect for the OT was the same among the Jews of the time, which included the acceptance of its full INSPIRATION and AUTHORITY. The oldest Christian church in Jerusalem, whose members came from a Jewish background, must have assumed this as well. This great respect for the OT had a profound impact on the growth of the NT, especially since the OT immediately rose to prominence as the only scripture of the early church. This is supported by the frequency with which various NT authors quote OT testimony, often using citation formulas that reveal the highest respect for OT authority. Formulas like "The Scriptures say" or "This was done so that what was said might come true" show the integral relationship between the OT scriptures and the Christian message. In this context, the growth of the NT collection should be followed.

It is reasonable to suppose that, in primitive Christian WORSHIP, the reading of the AT occupied a position of great importance, as in previous years. It is safer to say that commentaries on the OT text giving a Christian interpretation were added immediately, with special attention paid to passages showing a direct fulfillment in the life of Jesus. Parallel to this development was a deep interest in the teachings of Jesus, which for Christians had an authority similar to that of Old Testament pronouncements. The teachings of Jesus had the same authority as Jesus himself, and it was these teachings that the disciples were to teach others (Matthew 28:20). They could not have done this if Jesus' teachings had not been firmly imprinted in his memory.

Along with this development was the practice of reading letters from apostolic sources in Christian assemblies. That this practice was common is evident from references to his own letters read in various churches (cf. Col. 4:16; 1 Thess. 5:27). It is not known how quickly there was a general exchange and resulting public reading of Paul's letters, but it is possible that a collection was compiled shortly after his death (cf. 2 Peter 3:15-16). Evidence for the early use of these letters is based primarily on the few surviving subapostolic writings that seem to reflect them. Although not all of Paul's epistles are quoted in these writings, there is sufficient evidence to point to the existence of an authoritative collection well before the beginning of the second century B.C. show.

With the disappearance of the eyewitnesses, and especially when the Apostolic Witnesses were no longer available to act as authenticators of the doctrine, an urgent need would be felt for an accurate record not only of Jesus' teachings but also of His works. This was probably an important factor in the production of written gospels. The writing of such books may have been a phenomenon in their own right to address various special needs of communities. It is true that, as the Church expanded, the need for reliable literature, especially on the life and teachings of Jesus, would become more and more pressing. They would be valuable for evangelistic purposes in areas where there are no eyewitnesses to the events of Jesus' life (cf. John 20:31). The very name GOSPEL indicates the purpose of these books to convey good news.

It is easy to see that an authoritarian character will soon adhere to them. Although it is only in the II century a. While there is clear evidence of its authorized and exclusive use in the Orthodox Christian Church, later use is incontrovertible and so strongly suggested by earlier evidence that it is certain that the attitude of the churches was firmly established long before. These four gospels stand out from all the others as authentic records of the life and teachings of Jesus. All available evidence shows that the Acts of the Apostles were also received along with the authorized reception of the Gospels. In the early tradition this book was so closely associated with the Gospel of Luke, of which it seems to be a continuation, that both works were doubtless received on the same basis (cf. testimony from the end of the second century).

In addition to Paul's letters, which were included in the group of thirteen letters no later than the middle of the second century, and in all probability much earlier, as in the NT, the other NT letters were also gradually included. There is strong early evidence for 1 Peter and 1 John, but it is not clear when the other lesser epistles were added to the collection. Some of these are not as easy to quote as the longer epistles, and therefore it is not surprising that unambiguous citations between early authors are rare, if any. Probably in the middle of the 3rd century BC. In many parts of E, these lowercase letters were all included in the NT, but elsewhere there was some doubt about their canonical status. The Book of Revelation was in a similar position, being accepted early on as authoritative in some areas, but viewed with some hesitation in others.

When the church councils (in Laodicea and Carthage) finally affirmed the boundaries of the NT, those boundaries had already been defined by the usage of the vast majority of the orthodox churches. If we compare the lists approved by these two councils, the only difference was the exclusion from the revelation of the first and its inclusion in the second.

As a collection of Christian books, the NT itself is of considerable historical importance. The gospels are practically the only source of information about the historical Jesus. Various schools of New Testament criticism have questioned the extent to which the gospels preserve genuine information about the historical Jesus (see BIBLICAL CRITICISM; Because many speculations are not based on historical evidence, the gospels can still be considered a considerable source of information about the historical Jesus). Jesus). Jesus, even if a biography in the modern sense of it cannot be reconstructed.

Another problem that has arisen in using the Gospels as historical evidence is evaluating the historicity of the Fourth Gospel. That question cannot be discussed here, but surely more historical truth can be ascribed to this gospel than many of its critics will admit. In recent years, there has been a general increase in willingness to treat their statements as historical.

The Acts of the Apostles and the Pauline Epistles are the main sources of historical information for the history of the early Christian churches, supplemented by the minor epistles. While much remains to be known about the functioning of the early Christian church, the books of the New Testament contain enough data to paint an adequate picture of the principles of preaching. Two books, 1 Peter and Revelation, are particularly valuable as evidence of how the early church was persecuted. The Epistle to the Hebrews shows the interplay of Hebrew and Hellenistic ideas, but provides little historical information.

II. Contents.The main purpose of this article is to give an overview of the content of the NT, with the specific aim of showing its essential unity. Despite the value of the analytic approach, much would be lost if the NT were no longer seen as a whole. It is a collection of books of different kinds, but each part contributes to the unity of the whole.

AND. gospels.The first three are known as the Synoptic Gospels because they share a common outline in their main features and because they differ from John in several respects. The four books are not biographies of Jesus, although they do contain biographical material. you are essentiallygospels,announce good news. Their form is unique in contemporary world literature because they serve a unique purpose and announce a unique person. Within their common goal, each has their own point of view, which emerges when looked at individually. See more and separate articles for each of these books.

1.Of all the Gospels, this is the most Jewish, as can be seen immediately from the first chapters, which record the birth of the Lord. THE GENEALOGY OF is traced and organized in the typically Jewish fashion into three groups of fourteen names. Matthew clearly intended to present Christ as the true son of Abraham. There are other resources that support this point of view. In ABOUT HIM, Jesus declares that nothing of the law shall pass away (Mt 5:18-19), a statement that would strongly appeal to the Jewish people with their great devotion to the books of the law. Furthermore, Jesus did not renounce the throne of (Matthew 23:2-3), but urged his followers to obey the Mosaic commandments as given in the WRITINGS, and a startling recommendation was made regarding the condemnation of the Lord for your hypocrisy.

Matthew wants to make it clear that Jesus did not come into conflict with the religious leaders of his time over different views of the law (cf. Mt 19, 17-18; 23, 23 for the exhortations to keep the commandments). Matthew also contains references to Jewish matters such as the temple tax (17:24-25), fasting and Sabbath observance (5:23-24; 6:16-18; 24:20), the tradition of the elders (15 : 2), phylacteries (23:5), whitening of tombs (23:27). By doing so, he shows that Jesus moved in a typically Jewish environment. A saying of Jesus that particularly illuminates this approach is the statement that he came only to the lost sheep of the house of Israel (15:24). It is against this specifically Jewish background that Matthew presents Jesus, and the general content of this gospel must be judged on that basis.

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Jewish man (wearing a kippah, prayer shawl and phylacteries) bows in front of a Torah cabinet.

It is important to note that the work is organized in a pattern of alternating narrative and discursive sections. This shows something of the intended message of the book. It records a Christ acting and speaking. While there is some support for the view that Jesus is depicted in the clothing of a Jewish rabbi, there are some important differences. The rabbis taught related traditional material based on the old law, but Jesus brought his own authoritative presentation of the truth. Without denying what Moses had said, he gave his own independent interpretation of it (cf. the statement "But I tell you"), which is particularly evident in the Sermon on the Mount, to which Matthew attaches so much importance. There is no doubt that Matthew presents the clearest image of Christ as teacher in the Synoptic Gospels, but this by no means exhausts Matthew's description of him.

Another important feature of his treatment is the emphasis on the theme of the kingdom. Most of the parables are explicitly described as kingdom parables. Undoubtedly, Jesus sees himself in the role of king. This is consistent with Matthew's infant narrative, in which the infant Jesus is received as homage, and with the account of Jesus' actual entry into Jerusalem. The most important aspect of this royal approach is the incipient messianism of this gospel. The many occasions in which OT passages are claimed to support Jesus' actions call attention to the strong emphasis on fulfillment and the close connection between past prophecies and present events. In some cases, Matthew treats certain passages as messianic that were not treated by the Jews. In Matthew's account, Jesus is not an isolated phenomenon, but the one who would fulfill all the hopes of the past.

Despite these strong Jewish admixtures, the Gospel of Matthew is not exclusively Jewish. The final tone could not be more universal. The risen Christ is depicted not only commanding his disciples to go and teach all nations, but also commanding them to teach all that he commanded. Though given in a Jewish setting, Jesus' teaching had universal application.

A feature of Matthew's work shared by the other Gospels is the large part of the book devoted to the PASSION narrative. The records of activities and teachings that precede these narratives are essential, but the real focus is the passion of Jesus, for that was the purpose for which he came. See also DE.

2. To mark.In its general account of the main events, the Gospel of Mark is similar to that of Matthew. Both begin with the service in Galilee and follow the events up to the confession. At this point, both describe the steadfastness of the Lord in turning his face toward Jerusalem, but Mark has his own distinctive features. His goal is to portray Jesus as a man of action. His account contains many illustrative examples (for example, Mark 2:4; 4:37, 38; 6:39; 7:33; 8:23; 14:54). He uses link words like "immediately" to convey the impression of speed of action. He omits much of Jesus' teaching and includes only one example of a long speech (Mark 13). He differs from Mateo in that he focuses more on actions than words.

Mark frequently reports instances where Jesus refers to himself as DE, which fits well with the overall picture of Jesus as fully human. There has been much debate about the meaning of this title, and it is not easy to decide what it meant to the people of Jesus' time. However, there is no doubt that it had messianic connotations for Yahweh. He preferred the title because the term Messiah was confused by the many misconceptions of his contemporaries on the subject. Jesus did not come to lead the nation into a political coup. He came, in Mark's account, to seek and save the lost, giving his life in an act of deliverance (Mark 10:45).

Another equally important aspect of the depiction of Jesus is the use of the title DE, which Mark uses at the beginning of his book (Mark 1:1). Although some MSS do not include the title here, the most attested text supports the idea that Mark intended to write a gospel about Jesus, the Son of God. This aspect of the Lord's claims is most evident in the mighty acts of Jesus. These are unbelievable as the acts of a mere man. They demand an image of Jesus that is consistent with supernatural powers. In short, Mark's account leaves the reader with the impression of a unique person who is both fully human and possessed of divine powers. See also DE.

3.If Matthew were intended for Jews, Luke's description of Jesus would be appealing. Although the dedication is so specific, there is no doubt that Luke intended his gospel to be for a wide audience. Theophilus was more than a man to whom the gospel was dedicated. He probably represented all those who wanted to know more about the events of Jesus' life. Lucas also makes his intention clear in the prologue, where he affirms that he intends to make a narration of the things done between them (Lk 1,1-4). Since he also claims to have gone to great lengths to obtain his dates from eyewitnesses and ministers of the word, it can be assumed that he intended to write HISTORY. It was to be a story with a theological purpose, so that Theophilus and others could see the certainty of the things they had already learned. This clearly defined purpose should be the guiding principle in evaluating the specific contribution that Luke's gospel makes to the general understanding of the life and ministry of Jesus.

Luke's history is more complete than that of the other synoptics. His birth narratives are longer and his final one refers to ASCENSION, which the other two omit. Many incidents about Jesus and a considerable part of his teachings are preserved only in this gospel. The universal aspect of Jesus' work is most strongly emphasized. References to this expanded perspective can be found in birth narratives. The angels' announcement (Luke 2:10) was intended for all people, not just the Jewish nation. In the song (2:32) it is said that Jesus is the light of revelation to the Gentiles and the glory of Israel. In the quote from Isaiah applied to LA, Luke takes the quote beyond the other synoptics and concludes by saying that all flesh will see the salvation of God (3:6). In the final commission of the Risen One, Luke, like Matthew, makes it clear that Jesus intended his gospel to be preached among all nations (24:47), and the continuation in Acts shows the beginning of the fulfillment of that mandate. . Furthermore, in the gospel itself, Luke shows Jesus' concern for Jews and Jews, illustrating one aspect of his universal approach.

Luke also shows the Lord's special interest in people. In Jesus' parables, recorded only by Luke, most find their focus of interest on persons rather than things. Luke is particularly interested in recording Jesus' compassion for social outcasts. The characteristic story of Jesus' hospitality after returning goods to those whom he had wronged illustrates this point. The parable of the tax collector and the praying Pharisee clearly shows where the Lord's sympathies lie. His interest in the social position of women resides in this gospel more than in the others, a fact that is reflected not only in the number of times women are mentioned in the narratives, but also in the characters represented in the gospels, which can be clarified by similes. The same applies to his concern for children, clearly expressed in this gospel. It is also significant that Mary points out that the hungry are sent away full and the rich empty (Lk 1,53); and Luke records several cases showing the Lord's interest in the vanquished.

Given these facts, it can be assumed that Luke's main concern was to present Jesus as a humanitarian figure who came to inspire people to take a similar humanitarian approach. But that would be a one-sided picture, because Luke, like the other Synoptics, paid much attention to the Passion stories, and his purpose seems to be to show that the crucified Christ was the Christ of infinite mercy and human tenderness. Luke does not hide the fact that Jesus resolutely turns his face towards Jerusalem (Lk 9,51). Although Luke recorded some of the Lord's most gracious acts and words after this declaration of his designated purpose, he kept that purpose in mind at all times. As Jesus hung on the cross, he uttered an astonishing cry of abandonment, but Luke does not record this detail. His Passion narrative can, in some respects, be called less tragic than those of the other gospels, but that does not mean that he underestimated its redemptive importance, which is clearly expressed in the continuation of Luke, the Book of Actions. The gospel presents what is probably the most humane and sensitive account of the works, teachings, and sufferings of Jesus. Despite the fact that there is much parallel material among the three synoptics, Luke's image of Jesus complements their depictions and confirms the Christian church's belief that the three gospels are essential to a complete presentation of the Lord. See also DE.

4. John.The marked difference between this gospel and the other three raised questions about their contribution to the knowledge of Jesus. In critical history, John's historicity has long been in question. It is not possible to go into the problem here, but it should be noted that there is a growing desire to attribute some elements of historicity to this book. One of OF's earliest statements addresses the problem because he held that the Synoptics present the physical facts while John presents a spiritual gospel. It is not necessary to assume that he considered John less factual, but rather that he understood John's purpose in emphasizing the spiritual significance of the facts.

Several considerations support this conclusion. When John records MIRACLES, he calls them SIGNS, revealing his understanding of his purpose in testifying of Jesus. Most miracles are used as occasions to record speeches based on them. Thus, the feeding of the five thousand leads to the conversation about the bread from heaven (John 6), the healing of the blind man to a discussion about the truth of Jesus' affirmations (ch. 9), the exaltation to the declarations about the resurrection (ch. 11) . The first part of the book was appropriately called the Book of Signs. The speeches in this part are of a different nature from those in the Synoptics. Here Jesus is seen in frequent dialogue with the Jews, sometimes hostile, sometimes seriously questioning, as the incident with the Samaritan woman demonstrates the breadth of Jesus' spiritual calling.

In this gospel the message of Jesus is presented in more abstract forms than in the Synoptics, and PARABLES are absent, although there is some parabolic material. The doctrine is full of metaphorical allusions that show a close connection with the parabolic form, and there are two allegories: the Good Shepherd and the Vine. In general, however, Johannine teaching material is presented from a different perspective. The great statements of Jesus "I am" bring this into focus. These were self-revelations of the part that he came to fulfill. The bread from heaven, the light of the world, the way, the truth and the life illustrate his personal claims.

John imparts insights into the Jewish ministry of Jesus that are missing from the Synoptic Gospels. Most of the action in his gospel centers on Jerusalem, which also complements what is indirectly implied in the Synoptics. Therefore, the portrait of Jesus is seen in a different light. He appears to her as the Eternal or Verb, without reference to the historical facts of his birth. John is content with the mere statement that "the Word was made flesh" (John 1:14). As the story progresses, the awareness grows that the "hour" is drawing near, and that hour is the hour of the CRUCIFIXION, which is also the hour of glorification (see EXAMINATION OF THE INCARNATION was the prelude to the fulfillment of a designated purpose.

It is in the discourses of John 14-17 that the most characteristic part of the Gospel of John is found. Special attention is paid to the work of (cf. 14:16-17, 26; 15:26; 16:7; 16:13-14). In all but the last of these cases, he is called the counselor who provides help, guidance, instruction, and correction. As Jesus faces impending crucifixion, his final teaching to the disciples is in a tone of quiet joy, knowing that what is happening to him will benefit his followers. Indeed, his departure will mark the occasion of the coming of the Spirit that will glorify him.

Jesus' teaching about his own death is more specific in this gospel than in any other. John the Baptist's declaration that Jesus was the Lamb of God (John 1:29), the proverb about the good shepherd laying down his life for his sheep (10:14-16), and the comparison of Jesus' death with a grain of wheat that must die to bear fruit (12:24) are the clearest indications that the meaning of the cross was not left to conjecture. The cry of the cross, "It is finished" (19.30), shows the fulfillment of a task that had been announced in the past and perfectly accomplished in the life and death of Jesus. It cannot be overemphasized that the Gospel of John has meanings that are only implied in the Synoptic Gospels. See also DE.

B. Die behaviour Von a Apostle.There is an obvious connection between the Gospels and Acts, not only because Acts is a continuation of Luke, but also because all four Gospels assume such a continuation. Also, one of the most striking features of the early chapters of Acts is the apparent belief that Jesus is still active among his people. The healing work of Peter and John (Acts 3) is done in the name of Jesus, and there are other occasions when his name is invoked. Another even more striking feature is the mastery of the work of the Holy Spirit. The book has not been wrongly referred to as the Acts of the Holy Spirit. The beginning of the evangelizing work of the Church is marked by the descent of the Holy Spirit on the day of

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Facsimile of Codex Bezae (Acts 1:1–8).

PENTECOST. Luke is careful to show the vital role that the Spirit plays in all stages of the development of the CHURCH. This applies not only to the Jewish mission, but also to the Gentile mission. They went and were set apart for such work by the Spirit, and the Apostle to the Gentiles was constantly led by the Spirit, as on the second missionary journey, when the Spirit forbade Paul to enter

The plan of Acts corresponds roughly to what is said in Acts 1:8, where the risen Lord sends his disciples to witness in Jerusalem, Judea, Samaria, and the ends of the earth. The first part of the book shows the development of the church in the three mentioned areas, the second half the further development towards the center of the Roman Empire. History is necessarily selective, but it was certainly part of the purpose of the book to describe how Paul's missionary witness in Rome culminated. In this regard, it should be noted that Luke is careful to absolve the various Roman officials he refers to of anti-church and anti-Paul guilt. He discovers that the animosity stems from Jewish scheming and scheming.

Several sermons or statements of the Christian message survive in this book and are invaluable in showing the methods and content of the initial sermon. There is no developed theological system. The main charge is the testimony of the meaning and fulfillment of the death and resurrection of Jesus. This emphasis on early preaching helps explain the preponderance of space given throughout the Gospels to the Passion and Resurrection narratives. The Christ of the Gospels is considered the center of Christian preaching today. Acts does not support any view of Christianity that does not place the cross at the center of its message. The early church was not built on a new code of ethics, not even the ethics of Jesus. It was essentially a redeemed fellowship, as Acts makes clear.

At the same time, the book provides useful information about the life of the early church, although the insights it offers must be supplemented by Paul's letters. One of the most important contributions the book makes is the account of the meeting of the apostles, elders, and church members in Jerusalem to discuss the issue of CIRCUMCISION in relation to Paul's work (see OV. Practices. Also forms a close connection to Paul's epistles due to his in-depth study of this important subject.

The book of Acts is therefore the link between the gospels and the epistles of Paul. While much can be learned about the apostle from his self-revelation in his letters, it is this book that provides the background against which his writings must be studied. See also DE.

C. Die letters Von Pablo.To bring out the main points of emphasis in each letter, it is necessary to explain which letters are included. The thirteen letters that claim to have been written by Paul (Romans to Philemon) are considered in this context. The present author does not believe that there is sufficient reason to dispute the true Pauline character of any of these writings. The letter to the Hebrews is considered separately. While some shifts in emphasis can be discerned within the collection of Pauline letters, a remarkable unity of theological perspective can be discerned.

1. romans.This is the most theological of all of Paul's epistles. The dominant theme is justice and the method to achieve it. The apostle shows that all people, whether they are Gentiles or Jews, have the same basic need for JUSTIFICATION and no one is exempt from this need. Justification can only be obtained by FAITH in Christ, because God provided him as an atonement for our sins (Romans 3:26). God's provision is directly related to the death of Christ recorded in the Gospels. This letter goes on to show that it illustrates the principle of faith, and since Abraham preceded the law, justification could not depend on faithfulness to the law. Several principles of the life of faith are stated below, such as the following: GRACE does not mean that SIN can abound; in the internal struggle only Christ can give victory; and in the Christian life there is an urgent need for the indwelling of the Holy Spirit. The first eight chapters of the epistle are a well-grounded unit.

This is followed by a discussion on the issue of Israel and its relationship to the Gentiles in the context of the Christian church. The connection to the earlier part of the letter is not immediately apparent, but the issue between Gentiles and Jews was essentially related to the problem of JUSTICE. The real question was, how could a God who rejected Israel be just? Paul claims that Israel will be restored to its rightful place, but for reasons other than those commonly expected. It could only be because of God's unfathomable mercy and wisdom (Romans 11:33-36). The epistle ends with practical admonitions that show the work of righteousness in the believer. This is typical of the way Paul combines teaching with practice. See also ZUM.

2. Die corinthians letters.Paul had a somewhat volatile relationship with the Christians, and his two letters to them reflect a number of practical difficulties that arose. These epistles offer valuable information about Paul's methods of dealing with these problems and provide a model that has proved indispensable in the later history of the Church. The Corinthian church was probably not typical in Paul's day, but his statement of principles has proven timeless.

In the first epistle, Paul covers a variety of topics. He devotes most of the space to the factions that have arisen that he regrets. He then condemns the toleration of a case of incest and the appeal to Christians in pagan courts to settle disputes. He then speaks of marital relations, meat sacrificed to idols, the conduct of women during Christian worship, spiritual gifts and the resurrection of the dead. There is no common thread in this letter. What unites them is the urgent need to understand the Christian principles that should guide the approach to a variety of practical problems, many of which arose from the pagan background of church members. There is little theology in the epistle, but the ethical principles are completely consistent with the theology expressed in an epistle like Romans. The exquisite hymn of LOVE in 1 Cor. 13 is based on a love greater than human: the love of God, which occupies a prominent place in the epistle to the Romans. See also ZUM.

The second epistle presents many problems for the exegete. It is the most difficult of all Paul's letters. His occasion is connected with his personal relationship with Corinthians. Things came to a head and a group emerged within the church that was violently opposed to Paul. The letter was written in response to a report that managed to assure the apostle that the condition of the church was not as serious as before. In the final chapters (2 Corinthians 10-13), in which he vigorously defends his own position, the apostle found it necessary to confront a section of the church, but the rest of the epistle breathes a sigh of relief. Paul has much to say about the nature of ministry in a discussion that has become central to the Christian church as a whole. In addition, it includes a discussion of the obligation of the Corinthians to contribute to the program of gathering poor believers in Judea (see, which illustrates the extremely practical and social concerns of the great apostle. See also AO.

3. Galatians.This letter has special historical significance because of the light it sheds on the problem of CIRCUMCISION in the early church. Jewish Christians tended to view this rite as an essential part of salvation, and as such it was necessary for Gentiles to be circumcised as well. Some ardent defenders of this view have tried to persuade Gentiles to follow their line, and Paul's letter seeks to combat this approach, which it does in two ways. It first establishes the validity of his apostleship, since members of the Jewish party denied that he was a true apostle. The most important part of the rebuttal is the doctrinal part, in which he emphatically denies that the works of the law have anything to do with justification, which is strictly a matter of faith. The reasoning is similar to that of Romans. In both, Paul appeals to Abraham's position, which weighed heavily on him. An interesting feature in Galatians is the apparent use of ALLEGORY (Galatians 4:21-31), which he does not use often elsewhere. As in Romans, the epistle here concludes with practical exhortations, culminating in his call for the reader to display the fruit of the Spirit (5:22) and his own determination to glory alone in the cross (6:22). 14). See also ZUM.

4. Ephesus.Ephesians, Colossians, Philippians, and Philemon are known as the Prison Epistles, because in all of them Paul indicates that he is a prisoner. In the first part of Ephesians, Paul addresses the MYSTERY of God's dealings with people and presents an elevated view of Christ. He emphasizes that Christianity is a matter of faith and not work. He sees the pagan-Jewish problem resolved in the death of Christ. The last part of the letter is dedicated to Christian conduct, and once again the close relationship between doctrine and practice is visibly maintained. See also ZUM.

5. Felipe.The main tone of this card is Christian joy. The most notable part is the Christological passage (Philippians 2:5-11) where Paul speaks of the condescension of Christ. Theology is used as the basis for an exhortation to Christians to be of the same mind as Christ. The letter reveals much of Paul's affection for his readers and their affection for him. See also ZUM.

6. colossusThere are many similarities between Colossians and Ephesians, but the former is tied to a specific situation because Paul is dealing with heresy. In response, he emphasizes the positive primacy of Christ. He asserts that Christ's atonement extends to material creation, showing that Paul's worldview is essentially Christocentric. The ethical part runs parallel to Ephesians. See also ZUM.

7. Die Thessaloniki letters.These were almost certainly Paul's first letters. In both he deals chiefly with ESCHATOLOGY. There were problems with deceased believers; Christians wondered what their role would be in the SECOND COMING of Christ. There were others who thought that the coming of the Lord was so imminent that they stopped working. The first letter deals specifically with the first problem, and the second urges caution regarding the last. Both cards are distinguished by their practical teaching. See also AO; FOR HIM.

8. Die pastoralThis group consists of 1 and 2 Timothy and Titus. These letters show Paul's concern for order within the church. He mentions the necessary qualifications for ministers and gives advice on dealing with false teachers, which were of particular interest to congregations from Second Timothy to Paul's last epistle. see also

9. Philemon.Although brief, this epistle is an excellent example of Christian tact as Paul advocates the restoration of the runaway slave. Although the apostle did not specifically condemn slavery, his actions were designed to overthrow it. See also a.

D. Others New Testament letters.The rest of the letters of the NT are made up of Hebrews and the

1. Hebrew.The background of this epistle is the OT priestly system, and it is against this background that Christ is presented. The order failed because both the priests and the offerings were imperfect. Since Christ was perfect both in person and in sacrifice, the old order no longer matters. Such an exhibit would be of particular interest to Jews, but it was also valuable in allowing non-Jews to understand the Christian approach to the OT. This epistle offers valuable guidance as to the direction in which a Christian interpretation of the OT should proceed. Readers seem on the verge of apostasy, so the author presents some of the glory of the Christian position. See also ZUM.

2. Jaime.This epistle deals almost exclusively with practical matters such as temptation, prayer, mastery of the tongue, and riches. Remarkable is the lack of doctrinal content that it seems to assume. The best-known passage is the section on faith and works (James 2:14-26), which has often been confused with Paul's contradiction. But James is concerned that faith works, and Paul is concerned that faith should not depend on the works of the law (ie, a legal system). See also DE.

3. Die Petrin letters.The first of these was written in a context of persecution and is intended to encourage readers. The basis of the encouragement is the example of Christ, especially his sufferings. There is a combination of theological and practical significance of the cross. There is also a strong OT influence, particularly in the allusions to Exodus. The epistle has a particular value for suffering Christian communities in all ages. See also DE.

In the second epistle, the charge is the activity of certain false teachers whose policies lead to moral decay. Peter describes the nature of false doctrine and then emphasizes the role of the Holy Spirit in producing true prophecy (2 Peter 1:20-21). At the end of the epistle attention is drawn to the problem of delaying the second coming of Christ, which some scoff at. There are solemn words about the coming day of the Lord. See also DE.

4. Die joanino letters.All three of these cards deal with the theme of TRUTH, reflecting a background of controversy and error. From 1 and 2 John it seems certain that the error was in distinguishing between the heavenly Christ and the human Jesus. John's answer is twofold: a right relationship with God in Christ and a life governed by love. There are many antitheses. Light is contrasted with darkness, truth with error, the life of faith in the world. Sin comes into focus and the efficacy of Christ's sacrifice in dealing with it. The second epistle warns against entertaining false teachers, and 3 John criticizes a church for refusing to entertain God's messengers. See also DE.

5. Judas.This short epistle, which warns against false teachers of a similar type to those mentioned in 2 Peter, is significant for its ending, which glorifies God's love and preserving power. watching from.

MI. Die Book Von Epiphany.This book has given rise to numerous interpretations, over which there has been much controversy. However, all would recognize that the main theme is the final victory of Christ over the forces of evil. Whether its symbolism is interpreted historically or prophetically, the message of encouragement for troubled believers remains unchanged. it's a vision

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Reconstruction of a lead bulla (with the impression of a menorah seal) used to protect a scroll with valuable contents.

It addresses seven of the churches, but it has an enduring message, calling attention to the victorious consummation of the Christian era. The slain lamb became the enthroned lamb. Without this book, the NT would be incomplete. See also DE.

This summary of the individual books has shown a wide variety of facets, which nevertheless form a unit. There is a Christian message, although it is spread through many channels.

third Die authority Von a NEW TESTAMENT.It is impossible to discuss here the nature of religious AUTHORITY. All that is attempted is to give some reasons why the NT has become an authority on the life and ministry of the church. First, it must be recognized that the NT is the only authoritative source that can show the historical basis of Christianity. There are differing opinions among the different schools of criticism as to the authority of the books for this purpose. When the authenticity of any of the books is questioned, its value as a historical source immediately becomes suspect. But orthodox Christianity has never doubted that the NT provides a reliable guide to the historical development of the Christian church.

However, its authority lies primarily in the realm of doctrine and conduct. The apostle Paul writes as if he were issuing orders to his readers, and the authority of his approach has been recognized within the Christian church. Consequently, his teaching was endowed with authority. Because the apostle knows that he is led by the Spirit of God, he can write so bindingly. The tone of the letters of the other New Testament writers is equally authoritative. In the Gospels, however, this display of authority is less prominent among the scribes due to the different nature of these documents. Whereas in the Apostolic Epistles men speak with authority under the guidance of the Holy Spirit, in the Gospels the authority rests directly on the authority of Jesus himself. God himself is. He speaks and acts according to the will of the Father.

The question arises as to why, of all the writings of the early church, only the books of the New Testament were considered authoritative. The answer is linked to the study of canonicity discussed in the article on CANON (NT). However, something needs to be said here about the way in which authority was assigned to the twenty-seven books that make up the NT. As mentioned in the opening section of this article, both the Lord and the apostles accepted the authority of the OT. Where OT testimony supported a claim or illustrated an event, it added a dimension that could not be ignored. It was the firm belief of Christ and the apostles that the Old Testament Scriptures could not be broken. It was the word of God and therefore the voice of God. People were moved by the Holy Spirit to write it. His commandments were undoubtedly accepted as the commandments of God. But was this also true of the NT?

It is probable that the authority of the OT would pass to the NT once the teaching of Jesus and his apostles was recognized as a corollary of the OT teaching. It is this belief in the essential continuity between the old and the new order that paved the way for the extension of authority to books that testify to this continuity. In this context, it is not difficult to see how the accounts of Jesus' ministry and teaching would have immediately become official. So why were four of these accounts chosen?

It is important to note that none of the gospels was imposed by any external authority. Each had an inherent authority that was recognized by the first recipients. Furthermore, it was recognized that the apostles were not only appointed by the Lord, but also promised the special guidance of the Holy Spirit (John 14:26), and their words were therefore endowed with special authority. The Apostle Paul repeatedly asserted that his claim to the apostolic office was equal to that of the Jerusalem apostles, and it is likely that the Christian churches generally recognized this authority. His letters were clearly seen when 2 Peter 3: 15,16 was written.

The main problem is in the remaining books. With the exception of 1 Peter and 1 John, there has been some delay in their general acceptance. In the older period there is little evidence of an attitude towards the other minor letters. These are not the type of letters that would be widely quoted, and since all the earliest evidence consists of patristic quotations, it is difficult to know what these authors thought of the books they did not quote. In some cases, there is evidence that doubts existed, but the basis for these doubts is unknown. The Book of Revelation was held in higher esteem in the L than in the W, but the hesitation in its acceptance may be due to difficulties of interpretation. Ultimately, when all books were equally recognized, it was not through ecclesiastical pronouncements, but through long-term use and appreciation by the Christian church as a whole. The books were recognized as the authoritative entity.

(Among a large number of influential introductory works on the New Testament as a whole, the following may be cited, representing a variety of views: F. F. Bruce,it is a nuevo Testament documents Trusted?[1943; later editions titledDie nuevo Testament Documents: it is Is he around?FV Filson,Die nuevo Testament contra that's Surroundings[1950]; RM Grant,AND Historic Introduction for a nuevo Testament[1963]; E. F. Harrison,nuevo Testament Introduction[1964]; W. G. Kümmel,Introduction for a nuevo Testament,Revolution. edition [1975]; D Guthrie,nuevo Testament Introduction,4th ed. [1990]; RE Brown, Um.Introduction for a nuevo Testament[1997]; H. Koster,Introduction for a nuevo Testament,2nd edition [1995-2000]; rh gundry,AND study Von a nuevo Testament,4th edition [2003]; DA. Carson and D. J. Mugir,em Introduction for a nuevo Testament,2nd ed. [2005].)


nuevo Testament Kanon.See CANON (NT).

nuevo Testament Language.See LANGUAGE.

nuevo Testament Text.See TEXT AND MANUSCRIPTS (NT).

nuevo Testament Theology.An exposition of the circumstances and beliefs of Jesus, the apostles, and the early church during apostolic days, as set forth in the NT canonical writings and explained using related literature and contemporary data. See also BIBLICAL THEOLOGY; TEACHING OF

• The nature of New Testament theology

• The hermeneutics of New Testament theology

• Progressive development

• Historical revelation

• Organic continuity

• Development by Providence

• colloquial expression

• Descriptive and normative

• The content of New Testament theology

• Functional and ontological Christology

• The perspective of the resurrection

• Human nature, sin and the law

• God and his redemption program

• The church and its mission

UE. Die Nature Von New Testament Theology.As a discipline, New Testament theology is one segment of a larger enterprise called BIBLICAL THEOLOGY, which seeks to trace the origins and growth of biblical teaching and to present the different types of teaching discernible in the various authors. Consequently, New Testament theology and Biblical theology could be counted among disciplines such as systematic theology and historical theology. In turn, they essentially belong to the Department of Exegetical Theology, since their main task is to provide a correct grammatical-historical explanation of the teaching of each Bible writer, clarifying as far as possible the origin and evolution of each concept. in the canonical writings.

The term "biblical theology" has been used in a variety of ways and is somewhat prone to misunderstanding. It was first used to denoteand Products:theological reflection in continuity with the assumptions of the Bible and supported by specific texts. In this sense, the Lutheran pietists of the 17th century adopted the term for their more biblical doctrinal system, as opposed to the scholastic treatment of the dogma that was widespread in their day; and it is in this sense that the most conservative theologians of today tend to use it.

In the 19th century, however, the expression began to be usedand Methodthe theological question: the explanation of the biblical message according to a historical principle of treatment with full recognition of its various stages of development. In this sense, biblical theology seeks to discover how the original author and readers were influenced by their historical situation, how God's message was particularly appropriate for that historical situation, and what the divine message meant to them, regardless of what it was or was. outside. has been. it will apply to later periods of history, including our own. Unfortunately, both the impetus for such historical methodology and the manner of its application were originally influenced by the rationalism and skepticism of the day, so that biblical theology as method has often been contrasted with biblical theology as product. But this was not always the case, as J.B. Lightfoot, B.F. Westcott, and F.J.A. Hort, or the theological writings of "Old Princeton" forces like BB Warfield, Geerhardus Vos, and J. Greshammachen, to name a few.

While many of its advocates today would like to claim the science of biblical theology as an ally in their crusade against all creedal formulations and/or all forms of orthodoxy, such conclusions are the product of philosophical skepticism and emotional antagonism, not inherent to the method. . . The historical method must not be "killed by association" or despised by abuse. One might prefer to just talk about OT theology and NT theology and ignore the cognomenbiblical Theology,either from its use in certain schools of thought, or from his presumption in adopting the adjective for himselfbiblical.But whatever its name, the study of the canonical writings according to the historical principle is legitimate and necessary. Despite its ambiguity and possible inappropriateness, the use of the namebiblical theologyDesignating this approach is so firmly entrenched in the nomenclature of theological scholarship that it is hard to suppress it or make sense of it today without using it.

New Testament theology, therefore, belongs to the department of exegetical theology. While it draws on the powers and results of the individual disciplines of exegesis, history, and criticism, all integral parts of exegetical theology, it is not to be equated with any of these disciplines per se, as it strives to go beyond them. . examine the origins and development to explain different concepts within the NT from a historical point of view. On the other hand, it differs from systematic theology not in that it is a more biblical product or in that it adheres more closely to the truths of Scripture, but in its principle of organizing the material it works with historically rather than logically.

Systematic theology looks at the Bible as a whole and seeks to present all its teaching in an orderly and systematic manner, trying in particular to relate its message to contemporary issues; New Testament theology approaches the material from a historical point of view, with a particular focus on origins and development, trying to cross cultural barriers, and exploring what the message meant to the original speakers and their respective audiences. Thus, it represents a bridge between the disciplines of exegetical and systematic theology and allows for a fruitful discussion between these two areas of study. However, as it is related to each of these areas, it also serves as a form of challenge for all, being experimented with, deepened and modified when necessary, and, in turn, questioned by all equally.

II. Die hermeneutics Von New Testament Theology.Inherent in its nature as a discipline that describes the REVELATION of God in history, and as a science that includes the skills of exegesis, history, and criticism, there are certain hermeneutical factors that must constantly be kept in mind. Although it is impossible to speak at length about it here, some important principles of interpretation should be noted. See also INTERPRETATION.

AND. Progressive Epiphany.One can, of course, think of Revelation in a rather abstract and static way, as a treasure trove of truth given at a particular moment and complete in its most ancient form. Many religions speak of their scriptures in this way, either given by an alleged miracle or expressed by one of the world's sages. But this is not the case with the biblical revelation, because the biblical revelation was given in stages. Progressive revelation is a necessary category of thought in the hermeneutics of New Testament theology, since "special revelation" (as distinct from "general revelation") is intimately and inseparably linked to God's saving activity, and Salvation is historically successive, addressing generations of humanity. in their respective cultures and different situations throughout history. The revelation encompasses both the salvific acts of God throughout history and their respective interpretations; therefore, like salvation, it must happen in installments.

In practice, this means that the interpreter must balance two seemingly disparate truths: (1) all Scripture is given by divine INSPIRATION, but (2) all Scripture is not equally explicit as to divine will or equally relevant to the divine will. christian faith today . There is more explanation and fuller meaning in the OT prophets than in the Law of Moses, in the later prophets than in the earlier ones, in the gospels than in the prophets, and in the apostles than in the gospels. It is up to the interpreter to acknowledge these facts and treat the material in question accordingly, without attempting to read the fullness of later revelation into earlier stages of salvation (thus exceeding the limits of meaning in certain historical settings, except where obviously prophetic in the future). ) of nature), nor a very strong restriction of the last stages by the categories of the first.

B. Historic Epiphany.The revelation process not only accompanies the story, but divine revelation was incorporated into the story. In an age when the religious significance of history is diminishing, it must be reiterated that the religion of the Bible not only speaks of God's action in history, but also gives revealing importance to the facts of history itself because of to the salvific action of God. This is especially true of the incarnation and resurrection of Christ, but it is also true of all aspects of history when God has chosen to reveal himself and his will through historical facts and their interpretation by selected figures. in the history. therefore, details of history, culture, and language must be carefully considered to understand this revelation. Biblical interpretation is therefore only an actual explanation of the text and not an arbitrary violation of the text when it comes to understanding what the words meant to the original author and their recipients in light of the historical situation, their circumstances, and perspectives. the literary genre. used and the light that historical linguistics sheds on words. Only then can the true meaning of the text in its historical context come to life for the contemporary situation of the interpreter and those they serve.

C. Organic Continuity.All increase is progressive, but not all progressive increase is organic in nature. The progressive nature of biblical religion, however, shows an essential organic continuity, though it is always embedded in history, often expressed in many ways, and sometimes speaking with limited application. In essence, divine revelation is an organic progression from seed form to full growth. Nowhere is this truth more strongly emphasized than in Paul's letter to the Galatians. in Gal. 3:19-25, noting the limited purpose and duration of the Mosaic Law (note temporal expressions such as "added", "until", "no more"), the apostle places great emphasis on the continuity of the Christian FAITH ( 3:23, 25) with God's promise and his faith response (3:1-18, 26-29).

In the next chapter, Paul speaks of God's redemptive purpose throughout history in bringing people of faith from minority childhood to sonship in full manhood (Galatians 4:1-7), urging all through your full membership experience. Carrying out the gospel of Christ is in direct continuity with the promise of freedom given to Abraham (4:21-31). Amid all the varied features and sometimes limited application of specific concepts in the Bible, therefore, there is an underlying organic continuity in God's progressive revelation that cannot be ignored without seriously distorting the evidence. The New Testament theologian must emphasize this feature in his study and presentation of it, even when he correctly points out specific variations.

D. providence Developing.It must also be recognized that theological conviction in apostolic times (as in all epochs of salvation history and the progress of revelation) was the product not only of immediate revelation, but also of providential development under the guidance of the Holy Spirit. ; that is, both an early consciousness and a gestation process were involved in the formulation of New Testament doctrine. This is not to deny the "fact" of early church belief or to downplay the uniqueness of Christian theology. Nor is it meant to suggest that an evolutionary scheme somehow explains Christian thought. Rather, he is simply pointing out what the NT itself often proves: that the Spirit used both circumstance and direct revelation to reveal the fullness of its teaching. Jesus had promised: “I have much more to tell you than you can bear now. But when the Spirit of truth comes, he will guide you into all truth” (John 16:12,13; see also 14:26; 15:26; 16:14).

This is exactly what the apostles and early Christians believed they were experiencing in the interplay of their basic convictions and their different circumstances. As in ages past, God cooperated with them in the expression of his will through a providential process of thought development and the immediacy of redemptive activity and revelation. The New Testament theologian, therefore, must be willing to acknowledge the place of circumstances in doctrinal formulation and trace that development, without insisting somewhat adamantly that doctrinal unity must mean unity, or that continuity precludes further understanding. fully explained by the Spirit. circumstances. .

MI. Laborious Expression.Just as circumstances were used by the Spirit in formulating New Testament doctrine, they also played a role in its expression. Therefore, the NT is to be understood in terms of both 'hard' KARYGMA and various circumstances affecting the life of the church at particular times and situations. Without denying theological development and diversity, it is basically true that the NT, to quote C.F.D. Moule, "directs the debates from a single platform, but from different corners of it."birthday Von a nuevo Testament,2nd ed. [1966], 167). Part of the diversity of expression in the NT can be explained by the fact that the different presentations of the gospel and the different defenses of the faith follow quite definite lines according to different situations. This means that, in dealing with the terms and concepts used in the NT, reference is made to factors such as (1) the requirements of worship; (2) the preaching, teaching, and polemic requirements; (3) concerns related to the location and specific situations encountered; and (4) circumstances derived from a strong ideological environment. Of course, these are questions inherent in any real life situation. And they must be considered by the New Testament theologian on every point if he is to save himself from treating the evidence in a sterile or inflexible way.

F. Descriptive mi normative.Another principle in the hermeneutics of New Testament theology that applies to a variety of topics is that the biblical record must be carefully distinguished between the descriptive and the normative. Of course, this is not a big problem for many, because what is described is never necessarily normative. However, for the evangelical, once he has established the original message and the author's intent in the historical context in which he was writing, the principles of that message become binding on Christian faith and practice today. But it is necessary to say more than this if one is to avoid simply repeating the obvious and to go on with the task of interpreting the NT on a solid historical basis.

The fact that historically God acted simultaneously in employing persons and events in his common programs of redemption and revelation means that divine revelation is certainly involved both situationally and eternally, both culturally and cross-culturally spiritual. At every point, therefore, the NT reflects an interweaving between the historical situation in which God spoke and the eternal message conveyed through events and words. It is this intertwining of the situational and the eternal that must be unraveled by the New Testament scholar, both to clarify the cultural in order to better understand the cross-cultural, and to clarify the principles of the cross-cultural in order to better apply the cross-cultural message of the New Testament. eternal tin. to our current situation and continuing need.

The task seems pretty straightforward, though unfortunately there is no easy or clearly marked path to follow to complete it. Almost everyone will agree that certain characteristics described in the NT apply to the cultural rather than the eternal, although the basic principles presented in the message for this cultural situation must be expressed today. The early church, for example, sometimes cast lots to determine God's will (Acts 1:26); but few church leaders, and fewer than all ministers, would see fit to so decide the problems facing the church today, even though they sincerely wish to be guided by the same spirit. The early church also had the practice of greeting one another with a kiss (for example, Rom. 16:16; 1 Cor. 16:20; 2 Cor. 13:12; 1 Thessalonians 5:26; 1 Cor. Peter 5 :14) . ). ); but evidently, where the kiss interfered with the greeting, the faithful thought it prudent to alter the form, in order to preserve the substance.

The limit between the descriptive and the normative may seem quite obvious in examples such as those cited. In many other New Testament matters this is not so easy, as is shown by ongoing debates over such matters as succession in the apostolic office, the proper pattern of church organization, or the continuity of charismatic gifts. While there is no simple formula that ensures correct identification of normative features of NT presentation at all times, four guidelines may be helpful: (1) didactic passages in which a theme is developed in depth should be interpreted as allusions casual, historical events and symbolic representations of relevance to the topic at hand; (2) universal principles repeated in different scriptures must be allowed to interpret particular expressions of those principles, which may be conditioned by circumstances; (3) historical and cultural studies of the area and time in question should be taken into account to sensitize the interpreter to specific cultural forms; and (4) discernment of the spirit must be sincerely sought, for the interpretation of Scripture is not just a science, but a spiritual art.

third Die contents Von New Testament Theology.Early Christian theology was almost exclusively the belief in a theistic God, the one true God who is Creator and Redeemer was an axiom for the early Jewish believers. What concerned them and focused their attention was the redemptive work of God in the person and work of Jesus of Nazareth. No other consideration played so important a role in his thinking. And all the others, whether they were advances in his understanding of God, a deepening of his self-understanding and place in God's salvation program, developments in ecclesiology, or expectations about the future, were intimately connected to and flowed from his belief in Jesus the Christ. . . Therefore, it is necessary to start where they began and sketch in a brief outline some of the basic contents of New Testament thought.

AND. Functional mi ontological christology.It has been a tradition in systematic theology to consider Christian doctrine in roughly the following order: Prolegomena, Theism, Revelation and Authority, God and Creation, Anthropology, Christology, Soteriology, Ecclesiology and Eschatology, and in Christology, the doctrine of the Person. . Christi before contemplating your work. Logically, this is the true order. Everything else follows from the existence and nature of God. Because he was who he was, Jesus did what he did. But for the NT writers, and for the early church in general, it was essentially the other way around. His knowledge of what might be called Christian doctrine began at the time of God's resurrection of Jesus from the dead, progressed to a re-evaluation of Jesus' ministry and earthly ministry, gained perspective through a re-evaluation of the OT and culminated in a proper understanding of who he is. Jesus was. forks.

There is a multiple (or perhaps reverse) epistemological relationship in the NT. For Jesus, as the evidence strongly suggests, awareness of his own character preceded and drove the nature of his mission. He knew that he was the beloved Son of God (eg, Lk 2, 49; Mk 1, 11) who enjoyed a unique filial relationship with the Father (eg, Mk 12, 6; Jn 5, 17- 26; 6, 40; 8:35-36; 9:35-37; 10:36; 14:13; 17:1); and from that base date he assumed the duties assigned to him as the suffering servant of the Danielian and Isaiah VO (see DEL). whose nature seems to have been revealed gradually in events such as his baptism, temptation, transfiguration, and agony in Gethsemane. He worked in his earthly ministry from ontology to function. For the apostles and first believers in Jesus, on the other hand, the understanding of their mission preceded and gave indications about the nature of their person, they worked from a functional Christology to an ontological Christology, and the understanding of their mission and therefore of their person was just finally established. and he firmly established that God raised him from the dead.

B. Die Resurrection Perspective.It has recently become fashionable to explain the origin of NT Christology and the various stages of its development in terms of an initial futurist orientation and a series of gradual adjustments necessitated by the delay of the PAROUSIA. The Christological thought on this thesis, it is affirmed, began some time after the resurrection, but neither because of this nor in continuity with the self-awareness of Jesus. Evangelicals, on the other hand, wishing to express the aspect of continuity between Jesus' self-awareness and the theology of the early church, have often based Christology entirely on Jesus' self-understanding, insisting that if he thinks of His ontological way in terms of which the disciples must have done this all along.

Without denying the self-understanding of Jesus as presented in the Gospels, and acknowledging that our Lord exercised a decided personal influence over his followers during his earthly ministry, it remains faithful to the NT to affirm that it was his resurrection from the dead (as first demonstrated by Jesus himself and later witnessed by the Spirit) that was the historical starting point in early Christian thought. The two on the road, for example, radically changed their ideas about Jesus through his appearance (Lk 24, 13-35), as did the ten disciples who, fearing the oppression of the Jews, met in a closed room. (Lk 24, 13-35). ). 24:36-48; John 20:19-23). after seeing the risen Christ, he was forced to confess him as Lord and God (Jn 20, 24-29); proclaimed as a result of the resurrection: "God has made this Jesus, whom you crucified, both Lord and Christ" (Acts 2:36). Paul, possibly referring to the older catechetical formulas, records that Jesus was "established by the spirit of holiness, through his resurrection from the dead, to be the Son of God in power" (Rom. 1:4 TNIV) and that he owes his being confessed as Lord is the result of his sacrificial work and God's exaltation of him (Philippians 2:9-11).

From the perspective of his resurrection, the first followers of Jesus not only overcame the scandal of the cross, they overcame it.

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This artistic relief on the lintel of the Emmaus church shows Jesus meeting two men on the road to Emmaus after his resurrection.

they value the cross as the vertex of a ministry that was the fulfillment and vertex of redemptive history. Now that God had so miraculously confirmed Jesus by raising him from the dead, and now that he had ministered to them for forty days and continued that ministry in his exalted presence through the Spirit, they could see the earthly ministry and death of Jesus. the world. the context of God's salvation program and interpreting the OT scriptures in a decidedly Christocentric way, like the theme of fulfillment in the Gospel of Matthew, for example, amply exemplifies this.

NT Christology therefore (1) found its starting point in the resurrection and exaltation of Jesus; (2) it was supported by the recollection of Jesus' own conscience and ministry, although both were correctly understood only after his resurrection; (3) the justification derived from the Old Testament Scriptures, since the biblical parts used were understood Christologically; and (4) received development through the guidance of the Holy Spirit, who used circumstances to deepen reflection. Based on these factors, the early Christians understood the true character of their Master: the promised Messiah of Israel and his Redeemer and Lord.

C. Human Nature, Sin, mi a Ley.The resurrection of Christ was not only the starting point in New Testament Christology, but by referring to Christ from this perspective of resurrection and guided by the Holy Spirit, the early believers were able to more fully recognize the true human existence before God and appreciate the divine purpose in giving the Mosaic Law. The OT, of course, clearly teaches the facts of human dependence on the Creator and the human condition of sinful rebellion (e.g., Genesis 1-3), and there are instances recorded in the OT where an individual recognized the terrible moral chasm that separates a person from God (eg, Psalm 51; Isaiah 6:1-5). But in the NT this awareness of human depravity and inadequacy reaches its deepest expression apart from God (eg, Rom. 5:12-21; 7:7-25), for in the NT people see themselves as themselves in relation to the revelation. of God in the person of Jesus Christ.

This truth explains to some extent why it was possible to develop a doctrine of innate human goodness while Christianity emphasized original sin: while the OT (the document on which both Judaism and Christianity are based) mentions both created goodness as original depravity. Judaism, by rejecting God's Messiah, became optimistic about inherent HUMAN NATURE, while Christians became disillusioned about the essential human condition, comparing themselves to God's revelation in Christ. The NT, therefore, unlike rabbinic Judaism (although in continuity with the OT) proclaims men and women as sinners in need of divine salvation, not only because they practice sin, but because of what they have inherited "in Adam". .

The NT, again in contrast to the prevailing emphasis in Judaism (though in continuity with OT prophecy), acknowledges that the Mosaic LAW could never bring justice before God or grant eternal life due to human depravity and incapacity (Rom. 3 ). . . Nor was it intended by God for these purposes. Rather, God gave it (1) to point out human sinfulness (Rom 3:19-20; Gal 3:19-22) so that when we are humbled by the law, we can look to God with faith, who justifies the ungodly. By grace; (2) inciting to sin (Romans 5:20) so that sin in its true character can be seen as repugnant to a holy God and utterly devastating to us; and (3) to oversee the expression of faith prior to the fullness of God's redemptive program in the person and work of Jesus Christ (Galatians 3:23-25; 4:1-7).

D. Bom mi I'm looking for redeemer Program.Several statements about God and God's salvation program also derive from early Christian beliefs about the resurrection of Jesus. Once convinced of Deity, but knowing that He spoke to and from God the Father as a person other than Himself and the Holy Spirit as another like Him, Jewish Christians could no longer think of God in terms of strict numerical monotheism. Their Lord had referred to the Deity both in terms of monotheism and plurality; his teaching about himself referred to both equality and submission to the Father, and his ministry among them expressed the fact that Deity is working directly but is also dependent on the Father. And the Father bears witness to the truth of this relationship in the baptism of Jesus (Mk 1,11), in his transfiguration (Mk 9,7; cf. 2 Pt 1,17) and above all in his resurrection from the dead. . (Rom 1.4). Therefore, Christians were forced to speak of their Lord both in relation to the equality of the person with God the Father and in his function as subjection to him, and of the Holy Spirit similarly in relation to the Father and the Son. , and thus established the basis for the subsequent formalization of the doctrine of

Likewise, after being confronted with the risen Christ and baptized by the Holy Spirit on the day of Pentecost, Christians felt certain that God had ushered in the long-awaited messianic era. These are, as Peter proclaimed, “the last days,” the days when God begins the final season of his redemptive program (Acts 2:15-21). Or, as Paul wrote, "the fullness of time" came when God sent his Son (Galatians 4:4 NIV). The focus of attention in the NT shifted from a future ministry of God to his people, as in Judaism, to the saving work of Christ and his august presence. God, of course, still has a future in store for his people and his creation, but that future is inseparably rooted in and descends from Christ's finished work of salvation. Knowing God's salvation in the present and participating in the final consummation of His redemption in the future, therefore, means accepting Christ Jesus now by faith as Savior and Lord: "Salvation is found in no other, for there is no other name under heaven given among men, by which we must be saved” (Acts 4:12; cf. Rom. 10:9-10; John 1:12; Heb. 2:9-10).

MI. Die Iglesia mi that's Mission.Believing in Christ and being "in Christ" means that Christians have become part of the BODY, of which Christ himself is the head (Ephesians 1:22-23; Colossians 1:18). As members of this one body, all believers, regardless of racial or ethnic origin, are united as equals in grace before God (Ephesians 2:13-19; 3:6), and all receive gifts of the Spirit with whom they labored. . fruitfully in God's program of salvation and supporting one another in the common cause (1 Corinthians 12:12-27).

Therefore, the Christian is exhorted to "live a life worthy of the vocation with which you were called, with all humility and meekness, with patience, enduring with love, diligence, unity of spirit in the covenant of the Lord to keep peace" (Ephesians 4:1-3 RSV). As members of the body of Christ, every believer is to be subject to his Lord, the head of the body. Believers, therefore, are not left alone to achieve their own ends or to reflect on the nature of their main purpose in life, but are under the direction of their head and receive direction for their lives at the behest of their Mister. : "Therefore, go and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit, and teaching them to obey everything I have commanded you" (Mt 28,19-20a; cf Acts 1:8). And as they go, they are sure of their Lord's power (Matthew 28:18) and presence (28:20b).

(See more G.B. Stevens,Die theology Von a nuevo Testament[1901]; miss terry,Biblical Dogmatic[1907]; R. Bultmann,theology Von a nuevo Testament, 2volumes [1951]; a richardson,em Introduction for a theology Von a nuevo Testament[1958] G. YouBiblical Theology: alternative mi nuevo Testament[1959]; K. StendahlBIDDING,1:418-32; O. Betz aBIDDING,1:432–37; L.Goppelt,theology Von a nuevo Testament, 2Una Banda [1981]; H. Räisänen,Also nuevo Testament Theology: AND History mi and program[1990]; G. E. Ladd,AND theology Von a nuevo Testament,Revolution. SU edition. Hagner [1993]; GB Caird,nuevo Testament Theology,edition LD Hurst [1994]; P. Balla,challenges for nuevo Testament Theology: em to try for Justify a company[1998]; G. Maca,theology Von a nuevo Testament,edition FW Horn [2000]; IH Marshall,nuevo Testament Theology: Large amount witnesses 1 Gospel[2004]; FJ Matera,nuevo Testament Theology: To explore diversity mi Unit[2007].)



Nezias(Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (171)h5909,possibly "loyal" or "famous"). Ancestor of a family of temple servants who returned from EXILE in Babylon (Ezra 2:54; Nehemiah 7:56; 1 Ezra 5:32 [KJV, "Nasith"]).

etc.nee'zib (Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (172)h5908,"pillar" or "moulding"). A city in the assigned to the tribe (Joshua 15:43). It is identified with the modern Khirbet Beit Neṣib esh-Sharqiyeh, about 11 kilometers away. NW of and 9 mi. JAN of

Nibhaznib'haz (Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (173)h5563,uncertain derivation). An idol of the Avites (see Nibhaz, and was introduced by them when they moved there after 722 BCE (2 Kings 17:31). The names Nibhaz and Tartak are nowhere else attested, and have been proposed various explanations. Some rabbis apparently deducedNibhazVonNah H5560,"bark" and considered the idol to be a dog (Tartak was considered a donkey; seeb. Sanh.63b). At the beginning of the 20th century, F. Hommel suggested identifying these idols with Ibnahaza and Dirtak, the gods worshiped there (cf. M. Cogan and H. Tadmor,II reyes,AB 11 [1988], 212). JA MontgomeryCritical mi exegetical commentary a a tripe Von reyes,ICC [1951], 474) explained the wordNibhazas deliberate corruptionVon mizbēaḥ H4640, "Altar,"refers to a deified altar. (J. Gray draws a parallel with the deification of the house of worship found in the Aramaic papyri of Ver.BIDDING,3:546.) These and other suggestions (cf.abd,4:1104) cannot be verified. (See moreDDD,623.)

W. B.

NibshanNib'shan (Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (174)H5581,uncertain derivation). A city in the desert listed between and the city of salt (Joshua 15:62; see It is tentatively identified with Khirbet el-Maqari (in the valley), about 10 miles southeast and 5.5 miles southwest of Khirbet ( For the probable location of Salt City, see Y. Aharoni,Die Tierra Von a Bible: AND Historic Geography,Revolution. edition [1979], 356).

nicanorni-kay'nuhr (NChapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (175)g3770,"To conquer"). (1) son of Patroclus (2 Macc. 8:9); he was a general in the army fighting against Judas (1 Macc. 3:38-39 et al.). Other than a passing mention in Polybius 31.14.4), all that is known about this Nicanor is found in 1–2 Maccabees andAnt.12.5.5). He is described as a capable man "among the friends" of Epiphanius (1 Macc. 3:38) and as one of I's "honored princes" (7:26); however, some scholars suggest that they were two different men named Nicanor, one serving under Antiochus and the other under Demetrius). 166–165 BCE C. Nicanor, along with two other generals, was commissioned by Antiochus' regent to destroy Judah and Jerusalem (1 Mac. 3:38-42). They positioned themselves a few miles from Jerusalem, but were defeated by Judas and his troops (4:3-14), forcing the Syrian generals and their army to flee to nearby cities (4:15).

After a while - while Antiochus Epiphanes was dying, the young Antiochus V and his tutor Lysias were killed, and Demetrius I became king - the name Nicanor reappears (1 Macc. 7:26), and it is probably the same person . In this passage he is characterized as someone "who hated and hated Israel." This time Demetrius sent him on a similar mission to destroy Judas and his forces (162-161; in 2 Mac. 14:12 we read that he had been appointed governor of Judea before leaving). His first attempt to defeat Judas was to lure him into a conference in order to forcibly imprison him; However, the conspiracy failed when Judas discovered them in time to escape (1 Mac. 7:27-30).

Two battles followed, the first where Judas won a decisive victory, and the second very close and where Nicanor was one of the first to die. After mutilating his body, the Jews displayed him in Jerusalem (1 Mac. 7:47; 2 Mac. 15:33) and marked the 13th as the "day of Nicanor" in honor of the great victory over him at that fixed day

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Aerial view looking east towards the summit of Beth Horon. Nicanor, the general of the Seleucids, was killed in battle near this area.

(1 Mac. 7:48-49; 2 Mac. 15:36). (Some details in 2 Maccabees, considered less reliable, differ radically from 1 Maccabees. For example, Judas' conference with Nicanor is described in 14:22 as peaceful, and Nicanor is said to have been Judas's close friend for a long time. hour., 14:24.)

(2) governor during the time of Antiochus Epiphanes; He is among several rulers who "did not allow [the Jews] to live in peace and quiet."

(3) One of the seven men appointed by the early church to wait on tables and thus relieve the apostles of other duties (Acts 6:5). See also DEACON III;


nicanor Hill.ver

Niceno Believe.See creed.

Nicodemusnik'uh-dee'muhs (Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (177)g3773,"conqueror of the people"). A Jewish ruler who came to Jesus at night once defended him and helped bury his body (John 3:1-10; 7:50; 19:38-42). Although the name was used by first century Jews, this is the only man in the NT to use it. (He mentions a number of allusions to one Nakdimon ben Gurion [Gorion] and describes him as a man of great wealth who lived in Jerusalem when the city was under siege.o56a]. Some have tried to identify him with the Biblical Nicodemus, but that suggestion is unlikely.)

Description of Nicodemus as "ruler of the Jews"ton ioudaión,John 3:1) probably indicates that he was a member of the court of seventy elders, known as the highest religious body among the Jews (cf. NIV, "member of the Jewish council"; perhaps he was a very wealthy man, perhaps reflected in the large amount of spices he brought for the funeral, 19:39). Jesus refers to him as “the [Gr. teachers of Israel” (3:9), indicating that Nicodemus was a well-known and respected leader. Such a man is expected to know the Old Testament very well. As a teacher of "Israel," his special responsibility for the religious education of God's people was pointed out.

The fact that Nicodemus was a Pharisee was directly related to the conversation that Jesus had with him, since such a conversation would be impossible with one, or a Nicodemus interested the writer of the fourth gospel because it offered an opportunity to present the Teaching of Jesus. . . Only the first part of the conversation between Jesus and Nicodemus is dialogic (John 3:2-10). John left out what else could have been said about Nicodemus because the subject he introduced, the one Jesus was referring to, was the most important consideration.

As a Pharisee, Nicodemus's religious hope rested on his offspring, a physical offspring from seeing Nicodemus is portrayed as having misinterpreted Jesus' comment on the need to be born again. The Greek word for "again"G540)it can also mean "from above", that is, "from God" (cf. Jn 3:31). The lesson he taught from his encounter with Nicodemus was the need for spiritual procreation as opposed to a teaching that emphasized Abraham's natural procreation.

Many have observed progress in Nicodemus's relationship with Jesus. It began with Jesus "at night", which has suggested to most interpreters that he was doubtful and afraid of being seen with Jesus, since he came secretly out of deference to his reputation and to protect himself (although some have argued that he was not). was the case). case) an act of secrecy and that his decision to visit Jesus showed courage). Later, Nicodemus defended Jesus, albeit grudgingly, before the Sanhedrin: “Does our law condemn someone without first hearing him to know what he is doing?” (John 7:51). This comment brought the mocking response: “Are you also from Galilee? Examine it and you will see that no prophet comes from Galilee” (7:52). After Jesus' death, Nicodemus left, bringing spices to anoint the body and helping Arimathea with the burial (19:38-42; but see D. D. Sylva onSNT34 [1988]: 148–51).

However, some scholars believe that the Gospel of John presents a negative portrayal of Nicodemus. There seems to be a close literary connection between John 3:1-2 and the above narrative, which focuses on people interested in signs that cannot be trusted (2:23-25; cf. M. de Jonge inBJRL53 [1970-71]: 337-59). Furthermore, the reference to Nicodemus's visit "at night" may be an allusion to spiritual darkness (cf. 13:30). These scholars suggest that Nicodemus appears to be a "crypto-Christian" at best (cf. the table in R.E. Brown,Die community Von a Lover students[1979], 168–69).

H. L.

Nicodemus, GospelA Gospel of the Passion composed of two parts: thebehaviour Von Pilate,It's inancestry Von Cristo for a Lower Bump.NameGospel Von Nicodemusit was given at least in the 13th century. For a discussion, see OV.

Nicholasnik'uh-lay'uh-tuhn (NChapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (178)G3774).Name of a heretical group in the early church mentioned only twice in Revelation. The letter to the church in the Lord says: "But this is in your favor: you hate the practices of the Nicolaitans, which I also hate" (Rev. 2:6). However, he warns the congregation: “You also have those who hold the doctrine of the Nicolaitans. So repent! if not, I will quickly come to you and meet you with the sword of my mouth” (verses 15-16).

Irenaeusheresies1.26.3) said they were followers of Antioch, a proselyte who was among the seven men chosen to minister to the Jerusalem congregation (Acts 6:5) and who would have abandoned true Christian doctrine; Irenaeus added that the Nicolaitans lived in unbridled indulgence. hippolytusVon no heresies7.24) confirmed this identification by stating that Nicholas abandoned correct doctrine and was in the habit of being indifferent to what man ate and how he lived. He (6.8) he described them as "shameless in impurity." Although OP defended Nicholas by insisting that his followers had misunderstood him, he pointed out that the Nicolaitanes indulged like goats in a life of shameless debauchery (2.20.118).

In the letter to the church at Pergamum, the Nicolaitans were closely associated with certain people who held the doctrine of (Revelation 2:14), and many scholars have suggested that this is a play on words. The name Nicholas derives from two Greek words:Niko g3771,"conquer" andLaos g3295,"People." Likewise, according to popular etymology, Balaam could be analyzed as consisting of the Hebrew wordsH1180,"swallow, destroy" (Pilstiel) andh6639,"pueblo" (cf.b. Sanh.105a; Alternativa,H1251,"Lord," and Nicholas and Balaam would then be taken as the Greco-Hebrew equivalents, each alluding to an evil teacher who influenced the people and enslaved them to heresy.

A story is told of the seduction of the Israelites into immoral and idolatrous associations with the women of (Numbers 25:1-5). If this situation had not been controlled, Israel would have been destroyed as a nation. The success of this deception of God's people is attributed to the evil influence of Balaam (Numbers 31:16). Thus, in Hebrew history, Balaam became the symbol of an evil man who misled God's people into immorality and sin.

The epistle to the church in Pergamum specifically accused a group in that Christian church of "holding the doctrine of Balaam, who taught Balak to tempt the Israelites into sin by eating food offered to idols and practicing sexual immorality" (Rev. 2:14, cf. v. 20). Now, the FO decree had specified specific conditions under which Gentiles were to be received into the Christian community, including these two requirements: abstaining from things sacrificed to idols and from sexual immorality (Acts 15:28-29). These were the same standards violated by the followers of Balaam's teachings in Pergamum, and probably also by the Nicolaitans (however, some scholars consider the "sexual immorality" in Revelation 2 to be a figurative reference to idolatry).

These people apparently used Christian freedom as an occasion for the flesh (cf. Paul's warning in Galatians 5:13). The stimulus for such an approach was the pagan society in which Christians lived, where it was common to eat meat sacrificed to idols (see Idolatry III). Sexual relationships outside of marriage were generally acceptable in that society. The Nicolaitans tried to find a compromise with the Greco-Roman world around them. Undoubtedly, the most receptive to such a lesson were the upper classes, who were most at risk of being cut off from the culture to which they belonged prior to conversion.

It may be that the teaching of the Nicolaitanes was dualistic (see They probably argued that the human BODY is bad anyway and only the SPIRIT is good. Therefore a Christian could do with his body whatever he wanted because it had no meaning. The Spirit, on the other hand, was the recipient of grace, which means that mercy and forgiveness were his no matter what he did, which is why the Nicolaitans were judged by the author of Revelation as the most dangerous because the result of his teachings would fit Christianity to the world instead of letting Christianity change the world.hist.3.29) pointed out that this sect was short-lived and in all probability the only possible knowledge of its teaching is found in the minor references to it in the Apocalypse. (See more W.M. Mackay inEvQ45 [1973]: 111–15; C. J. Hemer,Die letters for a Seven iglesias Von Asia no are Local Attitude[1986], 87–94;abd,4:1106-07.) See also OF THE, VI.

H. L.

Nicolaunik'uh-luhs (NChapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (179)g3775,"conqueror of the people"). Also Nicholas. A PROSELYTE OF whom he was chosen as one of seven men to minister to the church in Jerusalem (Acts 6:5; see Deacon III). He evidently had converted to Christianity and later. Since the names of the seven men are Greek, some have assumed that the others were also proselytes. But the designation applies only to Nicholas, and therefore it seems more likely that the rest were Hellenistic Jews using Greek names (cf.

The Church Fathers believed that Nicholas was the founder of the heretical sect known as (Rev. 2:6, 15). DE 20.2.118) excused him for this, pointing out that it was a perversion of his teaching that engendered the Nicolaitans. According to Clemente, Nicolás had taught that "meat should be abused." By this he meant that the corpse must be controlled and kept under control. However, the Nicolaitans interpreted the proverb to mean that meat could be treated in any way: "But those who indulge in pleasure like goats, as if insulting the body, lead a life of excess... and continue what they do" Doctrine of lust itself, not of the apostolic man".

H. L.

Nicolaunik'uh-lay'uhs. ver

Nicopolisni-kop'uh-lis (NChapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (180)g3776,"City of Victory"). A city chosen and established as the capital of Epirus, a region in the northwest. He lived there before the Battle of Actium in 31 BC. He built the city on a promontory in the Gulf of Ambracia to commemorate his decisive victory over Antony. It was on the west coast of Greece, in the Gulf of Arta. As a Roman colony, the city had some reputation for the Actian games, which were also founded by Augustus.

It is likely that this Nicopolis was the meeting place that the apostle intended to use as a starting point for evangelization in Epirus (Titus 3:12). Although there are other cities with the same name (cf.abd,4:1108), none of which would justify Paul's intention to spend an entire winter there. Nicopolis had significant trade and fishing. Later it was destroyed by the Goths and, although it was rebuilt by Justinian, it was supplanted by Preveza in a place further away from S. Nicopolis. There are extensive ruins, including the remains of two theaters.


Niger(NORTEChapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (181)anchoNiger,"Black"). The surname of Simeon, one of the five "prophets and teachers" listed in the OV (Acts 13:1) as serving in the church. As the name might suggest that it was of African origin (although this inference is almost necessary), some have speculated that it was the same as in (Luke 23:26 and parallels), but the latter need not have been black, and in In any case, this identification is unlikely, since Luke himself does not say anything about it.

Night.In the beginning, by the creative Word of God, light was separated from darkness and the cycle of day and night began (Genesis 1:3–5; Heb.h6847,"To become night"). This temporary meaning of the wordNightis the most common in the Bible. In the AT the night was divided into three "watches" for the night vigil of soldiers and shepherds. The first watch (cf. Lam. 2:19) lasted from sunset until about 10 am, the second or "middle watch" (Judges 7:19) covered the next four hours; and the third or “morning watch” (Exodus 14:24; 1 Sam. 11:11 [NIV, “last watch of the night”]) from 2 am to noon. until sunrise. In the NT, the division follows the Roman custom into four watches (Mt 14.25; Mc 6.48; 13.35; Lc 12.38).

In addition to this natural usage, there is the termNightit is often used in Scripture of that which is spiritually dark and contrary to the light of God's love and justice. (1) It is used as a symbol of the darkness of the human spirit, the ignorance and confusion of the heart when God is excluded (Micah 3:6; John 11:10). abandoned the love of Jesus to betray him and went out, "and it was late" (John 13:30; Gr.Nyx(2) Christians are reminded that they have emerged from this darkness and are now children of light and of day and no longer of night (1 Thessalonians 5:4-8). (3) The present evil age, ruled by sin and Satan, is the night of the world, and it will be shaken by the return of Christ (1 Thessalonians 5:2; 2 Peter 3:10). This is the hope and comfort of the Christian (Rom. 13:12), and the most eloquent description of the coming age of glory is that "there will be no night" (Rev. 21:25; 22:5). (4) The visitation of God's judgment is also described as the night, when the light of his presence departs from the earth and God's wrath is turned against sin (Isaiah 15:1; 21:11-12 ). (5) Evening is also the time of people's pain, sadness, and suffering (Job 7:4), but "joy comes in the morning" (Psalm 30:5). Even on such occasions we are not hidden from God's care (139:11-12), and in his mercy he gives "songs in the night" (Job 35:10; Psalm 42:8).

personal computer

Night creatures, Night Witch.ver

Chotacabras.This term refers to a type of chotacabrasEuropean,a medium-sized nocturnal migratory bird with a small beak and legs), used by the NRSV and other versions to translate the Hebrewtaḥmas h9379,appearing only twice in a list of unclean birds (Lev. 11:16; Deut. 14:15). Many authorities consider it an owl, like the long-eared owl (NEB) and the screech owl (NIV). (See 59-60.)

NothingThe Nile is one of the longest rivers in the world, covering approximately 4,160 miles. from its sources in equatorial Africa to its delta in the Mediterranean Sea. It begins in a region of mountains, lakes, and seasonal rainfall, traverses swampy and tropical regions, and finally meanders through rocky deserts where their water is the only basis for the existence of living things. In its last reaches, the Nile produced one of the oldest and most enduring civilizations of which Western culture is a direct lineage.

UE. Name.For the ancient Egyptians it was the NileStage,this was also the name of the river god. it was easy tooitrw,"river", whence the Hebrews seem to have derived the termH3284,"River", the name of the Nile in the Hebrew Bible. The last origin and meaning of the name.Nothing(the GR.¿Neilos?Latin are unknown.

II. Fuentes, Course, mi tributariesAlthough the river's sources can be traced farther south, the flow of the White Nile can be said to begin at Lake Victoria, whose only outlet is the Victoria Nile, which drains northeast above Ripon Falls. The river flows through shallow Lake Kioga, cascades down Murchison Falls and empties into Lake Albert, from which it soon emerges as Bahr el-Jebel, "the mountain river". To the south of Lake No there are large swamps in which the floating masses of vegetation are calledsafethey occasionally blocked the flow and were often the deadly deterrent to early explorers of the river.

The Bahr el-Ghazal, "the river of gazelles", flows into the Bahr el-Jebel at Lake No; After this crossing, the river is called the White Nile. At Khartoum, the White Nile joins the Blue Nile, which provides most of the combined river's annual flow and is twice the volume of the White Nile during the flood season. The Blue Nile also carried much of the alluvium responsible for the formation and renewal of soil in ancient Egypt. A short distance to the N of Khartoum is the sixth cataract, the first of those natural barriers numbered from N to S in the order of their discovery. Below the sixth cataract are the ruins of Meroē, capital of the Meroitic Empire, c. 300 BC to 350 AD. From here to Aswan (see Nubian lies (see where salvage archeology attracted global collaboration at the time of the construction of the High Dam).

The final tributary of the Nile, the Atbara, enters the W; after that the Nile continues for about 1500 miles. to the Mediterranean Sea without receiving water from any other stream. Between

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Der Nil.

the fourth and third cataracts are the remains of Napata, the center of the so-called Ethiopian dynasty (25) of Egypt. Starting from the third cataract N, the ancient Egyptians maintained numerous forts and settlements. Just above Aswan is the famous Aswan High Dam and a few kilometers to the south is Sadd el-Aali, "the High Dam". Between Aswan and the Mediterranean, the water is controlled by a series of barriers. There were once seven Nile estuaries in the delta, today there are only two, the Rosetta in the west and the Damietta in the east.

third Die Nothing mi alternative Egypt.In ancient times, Hecataeus repeatedly claimed that Egypt was a gift from the Nile. The river cut through the valley and formed the flood that gave Egypt its ancient name,chemistry,“black earth”, in contrast to the red of the desert. It would be difficult to overstate the importance of the river to Egypt. The Nile touched almost every facet of Egyptian life and gave Egyptian culture many of its characteristics. In ancient times, recognition of the dependence on the river led to the deification of the stream under the figure of the god Hapi, represented as a well-fed man with pendulous breasts, bringing offerings of the river's produce. In addition to supplying many of the necessities and some of the pleasures of life, the Nile, with its regular annual floods, was the basis of the practical agricultural calendar. The coincidence of the heliacal rise of the Dog Star, Sirius (Sothis), and the beginning of the deluge gave rise to the chronological unit of 1,460 years, called the Sotic cycle.

4. Nothing mi a The Bible.Many of the Biblical references to the Nile are found specifically in the Exodus narrative and account (see Exodus, but there are also several references in prophetic writings.

The first mention of the river is in the dream (Genesis 41:1-4, 17-21); The king stopped on the bank of the Nile and saw that fat cattle were coming out of the river, followed by skinny cows that devoured the first cattle. Later, when the Egyptians feared the resident Israelites, any Israelite child born was ordered to be thrown into the river (Exodus 1:22). D's mother saved her son by putting him in a waterproof reed basket and hiding him among the reeds at the water's edge (2:3), where the king's daughter discovered the boy when she came to the river to bathe (vv . 5).

When the Lord gave the commission, one of the signs He gave to confirm His appointment was to turn the water of the Nile into blood (Exodus 4:9).

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A view of the Nile. (Near the Valley of the Kings, looking W.)

At the river, Moses confronted the king with an ultimatum about the Exodus (7:15; 8:20). The first of the plagues (turning water into blood) was against the river and river god Hapi (cf. Exodus 7:17-24; 17:5; Psalm 78:44). The next plague (frogs) was also associated with the river (Exodus 8:3, 5, 9, 11).

In Amos' prophecy there are references to the Nile and its rise and fall (Amos 8:8; 9:5). Isaiah mentions the Nile quite often. There is a comment that "flies from the distant rivers of Egypt" would bother Israel (Isaiah 7:18). Isaiah's Burden of Egypt (ch. 19) explains that the rivers of Egypt will stink and dry up (verse 6); the vegetation along the river will be destroyed (vv. 6-7) and the fishermen will mourn (vv. 8). The charge of (ch. 23) mentions that Phoenician merchants received income from "the harvest of the Nile" (v. 3), and Tire is said to "cultivate your land as along the Nile" (v. 10; thus NIV, following and

In a prophecy about Egypt, Jeremiah referred to the rising of the Nile (Jeremiah 46:7-8). Ezekiel gives prophecies against the king of Egypt and represents him in images taken from the Nile. He is called “the great dragon that spreads through its channels” who affirms: “My Nile is mine; I made it for myself” (Ezekiel 29:3 NIV; cf. v. 9). The fish of the rivers are mentioned when the destruction is prophesied (verses 4-5). At that time, the Lord also declared that he was against Pharaoh and the rivers of Egypt and that he would make the whole land a desolate wasteland (verse 10). Speaking of Israel's return from Egypt and Assyria to Palestine, Zechariah noted that "all the depths of the Nile will dry up" (Zechariah 10:11). Biblical writers knew the importance of the Nile to Egypt and practically identified the country with its river.

(See more H.E. Hurst and P. Phillips,Die Nothing Pool,5Bde. [1931-1938]; E.Ludwig,Die Nothing[1936]; HE Hurst,Die Nothing: AND Generally Bill Von a Flow mi a use Von That is water bodies,2. Aufl. [1952]; A. Moorehead,Die blanco Nothing[1960]; A. Moorehead,Die Azul Nothing[1962]; B. Brenner,Die Nothing[1966]; COMANDANTE. Williams y H. Faure, eds.,Die Make it happen mi a Nothing: fourth part environments mi prehistoric profession no Norte Africa[1980]; AB Edwards,AND mil miles hoch a Nothing[1993]; J. R. Huddlestun,"We are it is Is a bedrooms Cut a Nothing?" AND comparative Learn Von a Flow Nothing no alternative Egypt mi a hebrew The Bible[diss., Univ. of Michigan, 1996]; V Morell,Azul Nothing: Ethiopia Flow Von magic mi secret[2001]; T. Tvedt,Die Nothing: em commented Bibliography,2nd ed. [2004].)


NimraTake it easy See

Nimrimtake it (Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (184)H5810,uncertain derivation). One place in Isaiah and Jeremiah stated, "The waters of Nimrim dried up" (Isaiah 15:6; Jeremiah 48:34). The first passage appears to trace the "escape Edom" of the southwestern Moabites (J. Simons,geographically mi topographic Text Von a alternative Testament[1959], 436), downriver (Isa. 15:5-7) and then S through Poplar Pass (or i.e. stream, which marks the Edomite border; cf. E. J. Young,Die tripe Von Isaiah,Nikot, 3 vols. [1965-72], 1:459). If so, Nimrim would likely be Wadi (Corda) en-Numeirah, a river oasis near the southeastern end of the Dead Sea. (The present fertile Wadi Nimrin, which empties into the Jordan River 8 miles north of the Dead Sea and marks the N boundary of the Plains of Moab, appears to be more closely related.


Nimrodnim'rod (Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (185)h5808,uncertain derivation). Son and grandson of an ancient warrior and hunter who founded a kingdom (Genesis 10:6-8; 1 Chronicles 1:10).

UE. Die Name.The name Nimrod is of uncertain etymology and there have been many attempts at an explanation from Semitic and non-Semitic sources. Some speculated that it could be a game.fica h5277,"rebel", but this remains a hypothesis. An Akkadian personal nameNamratu(m)is known. Since Nimrod was a descendant of Ham, it is likely that the name is not Semitic in origin.

II. Persona.Nimrod is described as the first to be aGrandfathers H1475or skilled warrior (Genesis 10:8) and, as related art, "a hero in the hunt"(Dangerous say,v. 9). That he was "a powerful hunter before the war" could be a way of saying "a famous hunter" or simply "a powerful hunter in the field".

third Kingdom.His domains included the great cities (Warka), (Agad), and (NRSV, 'all') on earth. This includes the ancient kingdom of Akkad in northern Babylonia. From that land he went out and built (possibly a description of Nineveh) and (Ras). The last city is said to be "between Nineveh and Kalah," that is, in the interior of Assyria, called by Micah "the land of Nimrod" (Micah 5:6). Historical and Sumerian sites located in the lower levels of these sites. .

4. ID.Several suggestions were made. (1) The view that Nimrod reflects the sagas of the gods sees him as the Akkadian god of war and the hunt, Ninurta (a form likeNimurtais not certified), under his titlearea bodies,"King of Marad". He possibly could (Sumerianamar.ud[u]),the hero-god of battle, but seems to have existed until the 14th century BC. v. Cr. E. A. Speiser sees in Nimrod the prototype of Nino, the classical founder of Nineveh.

(2) considered Kushite (Nubian/Ethiopian); see Nimrod was married to the Egyptian king Amenhotep III. identified, 1411-1375 B.C. reigned (cf. G. von Rad,Genesis: AND commentary,3rd ed. [1972], 146). This suggestion would imply a transfer of ideas since Amenhotep never made it to the river.

(3) Nimrod's view is based solely on the fact that the epic hero-king of Erech (circa 2700 BC) marched north and was a well-known hunter. In his favor is the quoted proverb: “Like Nimrod, a mighty hunter before (Genesis 10: 9), as the Gilgamesh epic has been widely quoted throughout the NAE. The frequent mention of Nimrod in place names (eg, Nimrud is the modern name for Calah) and in early Islamic texts may be from the Old Testament. However, the difference in the names of Nimrod and Gilgamesh makes this view unlikely.

(4) Some have suggested Tukulti-Ninurta I of Assyria (c. 1244-1208 BC) who is considered the first Assyrian king of Babylon, but this identification conflicts with Gen. 10:10, the Nimrod as origin in S .

(5) Another suggestion is Sargon I of Agade, c. 2300 B.C. C., who carried out construction work at Nineveh and was famous in early omen literature. This opinion would imply that he is related to the Kašši of the eastern foothills (= Kush), but there is no evidence of such a connection. (See also E.A. Speiser, "In Search of Nimrod,"Erez Israel5 [1958]: 32-36;abd,4:1116-18;DDD,627-30.)


nimrudnim'red. Far

Nimschinim'shi (Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (186)H5811,uncertain derivation). King's grandfather (2 Kings 9:2, 14). Elsewhere Jehu is identified as "son of Nimshi" (1 Kings 19:16; 2 Kings 9:20; 2 Chronicles 22:7), but in these passages the Hebrew wordben H1201probably means "descendant" (cf.

Ninevehnin'uh-vuh( Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (187)h5770,by acc.Ninu(w)a;sou NT gentilisches Niviteg3780,"Nineveh"). KJV NT Nineveh. Ancient capital The ruins of Nineveh lie about 800 meters east of the river and are now part of the suburbs of modern Mosul, Iraq. The ruins are dominated by the two citadel hills divided by the river Khosr (Hosr): the largest to the northwest, Kuyunjik (or Quyunjiq, "many sheep"), and the smallest to the southwest, Nebi Yunus ("the prophet Jonah"). the hebrewnopeis a faithful transliteration of Assyrianask,a name of the goddess (ideographically written with the cuneiform character for a fish in a pen, but not the h5673,"Fish" - originally may have been a Hurrian word). the transliteratesNineveh,but classical Greek writers useKinder,named for assimilation to the name of a legendary figure.

UE. History.The archeology shows that the site has been occupied since prehistoric times (c. 4500 BC) and by the Hassuna, Samarra, Halaf and Ubaid cultures. The book of Genesis describes its foundation as a great northern city by (Genesis 10:11; see also

In early Akkadian times, the city prospered and was known for Sargon, his son Manishtusu (c. 2300 BC), who restored the Temple of Ishtar (Inanna) there, and for Naram-Sin. Gudea fought in the area for the next century. It seems to have been under constant occupation as a center of worship and trade by an independent Assyrian king, Shamshi-Adad I (c. 1800). He restored the temple of Ishtar (Emashmash) again, as well as the statues in that temple, which the then ruling king of Nineveh sent to the Egyptian pharaoh. Under the strong Media Assyrian kings I and Tukulti-Ninurta I, the city was considerably expanded and fortified. Later, with Assur and Calah, it became one of the main centers of royal administration. Then I (ca. 1114-1076), II (883-859) and II (722-705) built their palaces there. Tributes from their wars, including tributes from 744 (2 Kings 15:20) and 722 (Isaiah 8:4), were brought there in triumphal marches.

SENNACHERIB (705-681), to make up for the rival capital Dur-Sharrukin (Khorsabad) built by his father Sargon II, set out to found Nineveh on a grand scale. Outside of his enormous new palace, with its 9,880 square feet of carved walls depicting his victories, including the siege and the collection of tribute from Judah, he rebuilt the city walls. To introduce new water supplies, he dug 30-mile canals. of the Gomel River in Bavian and built an aqueduct at Ervan and a dam at Ajeila to control the flooding of the Khosr River. The city walls had fifteen main gates (five of which have been excavated), each guarded by colossi of stone bulls. Inside and outside the crenellated walls, Sennacherib established parks, a botanical garden, and a zoo. It was to this city that Sennacherib brought the tribute he had exacted from Judah (2 Kings 18:15), as is also recorded in his 1830 Prisma inscription found here. Here he also returned after this Palestinian campaign of 701 B.C. back. In 681 he was assassinated in the Temple of Nisroch (Ninurta?), which must have been within the walls.

Sennacherib's youngest son and successor recaptured Nineveh from rebels in 680 and built a palace there, though he spent much of his time in his other residence during his student days as crown prince. With the old king's years of decline and the faltering economy under his sons Ashur-etil-ilēni and Sin-shar-ishkun, Assyria's vassals revolted. Judah took the first steps towards regaining its independence when the Medes, aided by the Babylonians, sacked Assyria and Calah in 614. Two years later, together with Ummanmanda, a combined force besieged Nineveh for three months (?) 6-8) and he sacked the city predicted by the prophets Nahum and Zephaniah. Sin-shar-ishkun (Sardanapalus) perished in his burning palace, though Ashur-uballit and his court managed to flee there, where they remained until 609. Nineveh was left in ruins (Nah. 2:10, 13) and was herded by sheep. (Zeph 2:13-15), unrecognized by Xenophon and his retreating Greeks when they arrived in 401 B.C.

At the time of its greatest prosperity, as also described by Nineveh itself, it was surrounded by a circular wall c. 7.75 km. the extension. This “great city” had an area large enough to house 120,000 people (John 1:2; 3:2). Evidence for this comes from the southernmost capital of Calah (Nimrud), where 69,754 people lived in a city half the size of Nineveh. It is likely that the entire district administered by Nineveh at that time covered a very wide area, including Sinjar, Calah, and Dur-Sharrukin. Thus, it would require a "three-day walk" to cross it and a "one-day walk" to reach the center of the city from the periphery (Jon. 3:3-4 KJV; but see NIV). Unlike Akkadian, the Hebrew script does not distinguish between the metropolis itself and the region in general.(Questions]).So far there is no contemporary evidence of Jonah or the repentance of the people of Nineveh (Jonah 3:4-5) recommended by Jesus Christ (Matthew 12:41; Luke 11:30, 32).

II. excavationsEarly explorers, drawn by the association of the Nebi Yunus Mosque, reported the 'city of Jonah' and local lore, but it was not until John Cartwright (17th century) that Nineveh became commonly identified with it. When C. J. Rich published his plans for the ruins in 1820, interest was aroused and encouraged by the Frenchman VE Botta, who carried out the first surveys, but without success. He left the site thinking that the northernmost and most prominent ruins of Khor-sabad covered Biblical Nineveh. A. H. Layard and H. Rassam (1845-54) then entered the scene. The immediate discovery of bas-reliefs and cuneiform inscriptions and their publication aroused great interest in England, and his work was taken over by the British Museum. George Smith was sent to track him down (1872-76), but his main objective was to discover more inscriptions related to the Babylonian flood story. In this he succeeded.

Other work was done sporadically by E.A.W. Budge (1882-1891) and L. W. King (1903-05). Both found complementary texts to those previously found in Ashurbanipal's palace and in the temple of (the god of writing and science). In 1927, R. Campbell Thompson resumed work, this time systematically cleaning the Temple of Ishtar and Ashurnasirpal II's palace at Kuyunjik. HONEY. Mallowan took the opportunity in 1931-32 to probe virgin soil for the first stratification of prehistoric settlement levels. Since 1966, the Iraqi Department of Antiquities has reopened Sennacherib's Palace and has also cleared this area and the Nergal and Shamash gates. Road widening work carried out by Nebi Yunus uncovered Egyptian statues brought back by Ashurbanipal from his conquest of Memphis and two campaigns in Egypt.

Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (188)

The site of ancient Nineveh.

third Die TRUE Library.During the excavations already described, more than 16,000 clay tablets or fragments, representing some 10,000 texts, were recovered at Kuyunjik (hence its designation as the K[o]uyunjiq Collection). They were originally compiled by Sargon and his successors, but were mainly the work of Ashurba-nipal, who prides himself on being one of the few learned monarchs of antiquity.

Most of the texts were originals collected in Babylon or copied in Nineveh by skilled scribes. They span many genres of literature, including the well-known Creation and Deluge epics and versions containing both episodes (Atrahasis); legends and rituals; religious literature of all kinds, including hymns, prayers, and lists of gods and temples; cards; historical texts of various kinds; and lexicographical and bilingual documents that have proven very useful in promoting understanding of both Akkadian and Sumerian (see LANGUAGES OF ANE). Sufficient copies of some texts are now available to allow a detailed comparison with writing practices throughout the NNE.

(See but A. H. Layard,Nineveh mi that's remains[1849]; I could.,discoveries no a remains Von Nineveh mi Babylon[1853]; G Smith,assyrian discoveries[1875]; RC Thompson y R. W. Hutchinson,AND century Von exploration no Nineveh[1929]; RC Thompson and M.E.L. malva,Die British museum excavations no Nineveh[1931-32]; a them,Nineveh mi a alternative Testament[1955]; AC Brackman,Die happiness Von Nineveh: archeology Gran Aventura[1978]; J. M. Russell,Sanheribs Palacio which Rival no Nineveh[1991]; R. Mattila, Hrsg.,Nineveh, 612 BC: Die fama mi decline Von a assyrian Reich. Catalog Von a 10 birthday exhibition Von a neo assyrian Text Body Project[1995]; J. M. Russell,Die Final saco Von Nineveh: Die Discovery, documentation, mi ruin Von Sanheribs throne RoomGenericName no Nineveh, Irak[1998]; T. Kwasman et al., Hrsg.,legal minutes Von a TRUE In focus Von Nineveh, 2volumes [1991-2000];VALUES,1:244-47 and index;Die oxford encyclopedia Von archeology no a Proximity Ost,E. M. Meyers edition [1997], 4:144-48.)


Ninlilgive your little

to breathenif'ish. ver

Nipurni-poor'. An ancient Mesopotamian city now known as Nuffar about 100 miles away. S of Baghdad or 50 mi. SE of Babylon. It was founded by the Ubaid people c. 4000 BC Although the city did not exercise political power, it was the undisputed religious and cultural center from the beginning of the third millennium until the days of the 17th century. on the 14th the datable material ceases. By Hammurabi's time, Nippur had faded as a religious and cultural center, but it remained an important city well into the Parthian period.

Nippur was the seat of the worship of that god, and the ancient reputation of that god ensured his city the continued care of the kings of Babylon. Even in the seventh century BC. the Assyrian king Enlil restored the temple. Nippur was the seat of the main "academy", and the literature written and edited at that academy featured Nippur and his main deities, his wife Ninlil and his son Ninurta. Excavators have found some 50,000 tablets and fragments at Nippur, about a tenth of which are inscribed with Sumerian works.

American expeditions carried out excavations at Nippur in 1890, 1893-96, 1899-1900, 1948, and then intermittently until 1990. These excavations revealed parts of themovements,"House of the Mountain", Enlil's temple and main sanctuary of Sumer, and the temple of Enlil's consort Nin-lil. A large temple dedicated to the goddess Inanna and a small temple dedicated to an unknown deity were also found, as well as houses from the city's Scribes' district. (See H.W. Hilprecht,Die excavations no assyrian mi Babylonian[1904], 289-577; cs fisherman,excavations no Nipur[1907]; VC Crawford enarcheology12 [1959]: 74-83; MD Ellis, Hrsg.,Nipur no a centenary[1992];abd,4:1119-22;VALUES,Index;Die oxford encyclopedia Von archeology no a Proximity Ost,E. M. Meyers edition [1997], 4:148-52.)


nissanthey are, nee'sahn (Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (189)h5772,by acc.Nisannu).The first month of the Jewish religious CALENDAR (corresponding to March-April) in which this name appears twice in the Bible and only in post-exilic writings (Neh. 2:1; Esther. 3:7); was formerly known as

NisrochShort term (Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (190)h5827,uncertain derivation). TNIV Nisrok. An Assyrian deity worshiped in After returning from his loss near Jerusalem, the Assyrian king was killed by his two sons, and while worshiping his god in the house of Nisroch. Sennacherib was apparently "broken with statues of tutelary deities" 288 and slain "by the sword" (2 Kings 19:37; Isaiah 37:38). Since the name Nisroch is completely unknown in the source material of the Mesopotamian religion, a textual forgery or intentional scribal change is suspected. Perhaps the reference refers to a known deity (such as o Nusku), but the problem remains unresolved. (See moreDDD,630-32.)


Nisroknis'rok. Formulario TNIV de


nono (Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (191)H5530,Egypt.nwt).KJV transliteration of the city's Hebrew name (Jeremiah 46:25; Ezekiel 30:14-16; Nah 3:8).

noadianoh'uh-di'uh (Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (192)h5676,"Yahweh found himself, revealed himself]"; for other possible representations seeabd,4:1122). (1) son of Binui; he was a Levite and one of the four men designated as final guardians of the treasure brought back from exile (Ezra 8:33; called "Moeth" in 1 Ezra 8:63).

(2) An allied and opposing prophetess at the time of the rebuilding of the walls of Jerusalem (Nehemiah 6:14). The reference to this unknown is surprising, given that another prophet is the subject of the above material (vv. 10-13). Based on some Greek L. Batten(AND Critical mi exegetical commentary a a books Von Esra mi Nehemiah,ICC [1913], 258, 262) changes the Hebrew text (from "to frighten" toI understand"instructing, warning") and suggests that Noadiah supported Nehemiah, but this suggestion has not been accepted by later commentators.

W. B.

Noah (Miles)noh'uh (Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (193)h5695,possibly fromChapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (194)h5663,"rest", but explained [by folk etymology?] with reference toChapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (195)H5714,"to comfort" in Genesis 5:29; NotChapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (196)#949;G3820).Son and descendant of the last of the ten antediluvian patriarchs listed in Genesis (Gn 5,28-29). In Genesis 6-9, Noah is the hero of the deluge, or deluge, in which only he and his family survived. To see

Noah was 500 years old when his first son was born (Gn 5,32). The flood came 100 years later, but Noah knew about this great catastrophic judgment probably 120 years before it occurred (Gen 6:3; compare 1 Pet 3:20). In obedience to God's instructions, he built an ark and warned others (2 Peter 2:5) that divine judgment was near (see ARK OF When the flood came, only Noah, his wife, and his three sons and their wives in them they were saved from the Ark. The Flood, which spread as far as humans, possibly covering the entire globe, destroyed the rest of mankind (Genesis 7:7). About a year after the Flood began (7: 11; 8:13), Noah was told to leave the ark. In response to Noah's sacrifice came divine assurance that the earth would never again be destroyed in this way and that seasonal changes would continue regularly (8:20- 22).

Noah became the father of all mankind. The descendants of his sons and

Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (197)

A mosaic from the Church of the Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem depicting Noah's Ark.

Japhet was scattered over a wide area as indicated in Gen. 10-11. Whether or not Noah had any more descendants after the Flood is unclear from the Scriptural record. God's covenant was with Noah and his sons. a son of Ham, he was placed under a special curse for Ham's disrespectful behavior (9:24-25).

The character of Noah offers an interesting study based on Biblical references. Noah's appointment (Genesis 5:28-29) is linked to Adam's curse (3:16-17). For generations people have been waiting for a seed or offspring to free them from this judgment. Neither the birth of (4:1) nor that of Seth (4:25-26) brought delay. When Noah was born, the hope was again expressed that people might find some relief or solace in the suffering caused by the curse.

Noah was considered a righteous man and is described by his contemporaries as blameless or blameless (Genesis 6:9). This pattern of life arose from his intimate relationship with God, which the writer of Genesis describes as "walking with God" and the writer of Hebrews as "an inheritance of righteousness by faith" (Hebrews 11:7). This way of life for Noah was in direct contrast to the way of life of his generation, which is described as so corrupt and perpetual that God was saddened to have created mankind. Noah was the only one who found favor with God (Genesis 6:8).

Noah was favored by God when he was warned of impending judgment on corrupt mankind. His job was to build an ark and serve as a messenger of justice (2 Peter 2:5). While Noah exercised obedient faith in following God's instructions, the rest of humanity outside of Noah's family ignored the warning and subsequently perished in the flood. Men's and women's moral standards are mentioned (Genesis 6:1-5, 11-13), and Jesus' teaching describes the conditions that precipitated this divine judgment on humanity (Matthew 24:37-39; Luke 17:26 - 27).

Noah's immediate concern after leaving the ark was to make an offering or sacrifice to God, who carried him through that horrible judgment. As Noah worshipped, God assured him that divine blessings awaited him and his children and that his judgment would not be repeated. Noah and his sons were commissioned to fill the earth and subdue all creatures and vegetation. This ALLIANCE was divinely initiated and is universal in scope. It applied to all living things and was meant to last forever. It was sealed by God with the visible sign of the RAINBOW (Gn 9,9-17; cf. also Is 54,9). Divine assurance came to Noah and his descendants that never again would all flesh be destroyed by a flood.

Little is known of Noah in the 350 years of his life after the Flood. He engaged in agriculture or animal husbandry, and in course of time cultivated the vineyard and was afflicted with the sin of drunkenness (cf. H. H. Cohen,Die drunkenness Von Noah[1974]). Whether righteous Noah's behavior in giving in to the temptation of drunkenness was due to old age or carelessness is not stated in the Biblical accounts. Upon learning of his father's inappropriate behavior, Cam informed his siblings, who diligently cared for his father. It seems likely that Canaan, Ham's youngest son, was the most disrespectful. Aware of the situation, Noah announced a curse on Canaan, indicating that he would be left in captivity in his relationship with his brothers. Some scholars interpret this as a prophetic statement by Noah, in which he predicted that the descendants of Canaan would become servants to his brothers due to the expression of these inauspicious qualities. (See moreabd,4:1223-31.)


Noah (Frau)noh'uh (Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (198)h5829,uncertain derivation). One of the five daughters of the tribe of (Numbers 26:33). Since Zelophehad was childless, his daughters asked the priest to inherit their father's property, and the request was granted on the condition that they marry into their father's tribe (27:1-11; 36:11 ; Joshua 17:3-4). . This decision was very important and set a precedent.

Noah, Apocalypse (much) Von.An ancient Jewish work on Noah, known to us only from the book ofJub.10,13; 21.10) and is generally believed to underlie certain parts1 enoch(See R. H. Charles assigned four sections (1 En. 6-11; 54:7-55.2; 60; 65:1-69.25; 106-7).a Apocalypse Von Noah (I see APOSTLE,2:168; On the other hand, J.E.H. thompson inIS TO BE[1929], 1:165-66). Carlos considered the 161 a. as the latest composition date for theApocalypse (1 No.83-90 assume the existence of ch. 6-36, believed to be partVon a Apocalypse,and caps 83-90 cannot be later than 161).

H. G.

no amonnoh-am'uhn. ver

WOMENNob (Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (199)H5546,unknown origin). A city northeast of Nob is described as "the city of the priests" (1 Samuel 22:19), near the capital to which the tabernacle was moved after its destruction (14:2-3; cf. Jeremiah 7 :14). ). At the time of Saul's flight, c. 1015 BC The high priest gave David the BREAD AND the sword at Nob (1 Samuel 21:1-9). Saul, vengeful, then killed eighty-five priests and put the city to the sword (22:11-19).

Three centuries later, the city was described as a stopping point for Assyrians arriving from the northeast; of Nob could "shake their fist against the mount of the daughter of Zion" (Isaiah 10:32). It suggests the identification of Nob with Ras Umm on the eastern slope of Mount Scopus in the N part of the Olivet range (J. Simons,geographically mi topographic Text Von a alternative Testament[1959], 70). Other proposals in the same area include Ras el-Mesharif (originally proposed by W. F. Albright in AASOR 4 [1924]: 139; see map in H. Wildberger,Isaiah 1-12[1991], 454) and (cf. Y. Aharoni, 1991).Die Tierra Von a Bible: AND Historic Geography,Revolution. edition [1979], 393, 440). This general position of Nob is confirmed by 2 Sam. 15:32, which tells of David's arrival on the top of the Mount of Olives, "where men used to worship God," and Neh. 11:31-32, where Nob as a Benjamite city between and (= modern NT


Nobah (Persona)noh'buh (Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (200)H5561,apparently fromChapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (201)H5560,"Bark"). One of the descendants who conquered and expelled the area; he "captured Kenat and the surrounding settlements and named them Nobach" (Numbers 32:42). To see

Nobah (Plaza)noh'buh (Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (202)h5562,apparently fromChapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (203)H5560,"Bark"). One town was near the W of a caravan route from Transjordan (Judges 8:11). It was on this route to the city (v. 10) that a Midianite army fell and captured the E kings (v. 12). This Noba is probably the city originally known as Manasita, and later renamed (Numbers 32:42); However, some argue that there is another Nobah in sight and that it should be identified with modern Tell ṢafuṬ, a short distance northwest of Jogbehah (cf.abd,5:896-97; but others identify Tell ṢafuṬ with Jogbehah himself).

Nobaiin bi. To see

edel.This English term is used as an adjective or a noun in various Bible translations to represent various words. The Hebrew termḥōr h2985,indicates free or noble birth, used as a noun, occurs only in the plural, and is particularly common in the book of Nehemiah (1 Kings 21:8, 11; Nehemiah 2:16; 4:14; et al.). the adjectiveH129,"Majestic, magnificent" can also be used as a noun referring to nobles and chiefs (Judges 5:13; 2 Chronicles 23:20; et al.). another adjectiveRarely H5618,means "willing," but when applied to someone who is willing or generous, it can also be translated "noble" or even "prince" (Numbers 21:18; 1 Sam. 2:8 et al.). Certain other Hebrew words may occasionally be used in this sense in certain contexts (eg, Esther 1:3; Job 29:10; Jon. 3:7).

Not NT, or Greek adjectiveem eugene G2302indicates nobility in the sense of "high birth" or "noble descent" (Lk 19.12; 1 Cor 1.26), but it can also refer to a noble spirit (for example, the Bereans in Acts 17). :eleven). another adjectiveKalos g2819,“good” can be correctly translated as “noble” in certain contexts (eg, 1 Tim 3:1). The same is true of some other terms (cf. Rom. 9:21 NIV; Acts 24:3 KJV et al.).


assentnod (Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (204)h5655,apparently fromChapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (205)h5653,"wander" [cf. Genesis 4:12, 14]). An E district of EDEN that he moved to after killing his brother (Genesis 4:16). The location of Nod is unknown, and some have argued that the name was symbolic of Cain's trial as a fugitive (cf.Noin Psalms 56:8, variously translated as "my wanderings," "my lamentation" [NIV], "my tossing and turning" [NRSV, possibly readingNight,VonI didnot do that H5611]).

Nodabnoh'dab (Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (206)h5656,perhaps "has instigated [God]" [cf.abd,4:11-34]). The name of an Arab (less likely Aramaic) tribe is mentioned with and as an ally of (1 Chronicles 5:19). This coalition was defeated and dispossessed by the tribes of and a half tribe of (vv. 18, 20-22), apparently during the time of (v. 10). Some have argued that Nodab must be associated with or identified with the Ishmaelite tribe descending from him (cf. W. F. Albright onEducation oriental-talistici no honor Von Jorge Levi Do Life, 2Volumes [1956], 1:1-14). Others observe that in listing the sons of Jetur and Naphis, they are not followed by Nodab (as in 1Ch 5:19), but (Gen 25:15; 1Ch 1:31), so that Nodab is perhaps a representative. name or textual corruption of Kedemah(I see. HOLA,2:678).

W. B.

Someno. KJV NT form of

noebanoh-ee'buh. Ver #1.

(Video) Chuck Missler Genesis Session 11

legsnoh'goh (Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (207)h5587,"brightness, splendor"). He the son of listed among the children born to him in Jerusalem (1 Chr. 3:7; 14:6). This name, like #2, is absent from the parallel list (2 Sam. 5:14-15).

Noahnoh'hah (Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (208)h5666,"rest"). (1) Third son of (1 Chron. 8:2). This curiously feminine name does not appear in the other lists of the sons of Benjamin (Gn 46,21; Nm 26,38-40; 1 Chr 7,6). Some have thought that Noah and in 1 Chronicles 8:2 were alternate names for and (which occupy the same places in the list in Numbers 26:39), or that the families arising from the latter two "perhaps later were given new names for famous chiefs in place of the original designations, so that Nohah and Rapha would be later descendants of Shephupham and Hupham" (KD,Chronicles,145). Other views have been suggested. See also comments below.

(2) According to the CODEX VATICAN USA, followed by the NRSV and other versions, Nohah was also the name of a place from where the Israelites pursued the men of Benjamin (Judges 20:43). The MT here hasmenu,perhaps meaning "at his resting place" (NRSV mg.) or "easily" (ie NIV; cf. KJV, "easily"), though it may be an unknown place name, "Menuhah" (ie , NJPS; cf. KJV mg., "Menucha"). HeNeun,"from Nohah") apparently knew how to represent the Hebrew consonantsMinnoha.If this interpretation is correct, Nohah was probably a town named #1 above, but its location is unknown. CF Burney(Die tripe Von Richter, com Introduction mi Comments[1918], 485) adopted this reading "in the absence of a better solution", but conceded "that the correction is extremely poor".

Noise.This English term is used nearly ninety times in the KJV, but it occurs much less frequently in modern versions, which often use synonyms (eg, "sound" as in Isaiah 24:18) or alternative expressions (eg, "sound" as in Isaiah 24:18). eg, "the noise of the shouting" in 1 Samuel 4:6 KJV becomes simply "the uproar" in NIV). Many references to noise occur in the context of God's predicted judgment, direct or indirect, against the inhabitants of the earth (Isa. 29:6; 33:3; Jer. 4:29; 47:3; 50:22; Ezekiel 26:10; Rev. 6:1; 8:5; 9:9; 11:19; 16:18), with emphasis on the prophetic books. There is also the noise of men, rejoicing at the appointment of a new king (1 Kings 1:40-41, 45; 2 Kings 11:13) or worshiping the golden calf (Exodus 32:17). . The psalmist's admonition to "make a joyful sound" for God is translated by the NIV, "joyful joy" or something similar (Psalm 66:1; 95:1; 98:4, 6; 100:1). A thunderous noise is associated with a cheering crowd (Isaiah 24:8), enemy hordes attacking Israel (Isaiah 25:5), and waves of the sea (Jeremiah 51:55). A growl is a picture of shepherds trying to drive away a lion (Isaiah 31:4) and songs unacceptable to God (Amos 5:23). Peter writes of a roar that will accompany the future passing of the heavens (2 Peter 3:10).

R. L.

Nomadic.Nomads are migratory groups of individuals that change location within a larger area than their range, generally following a seasonal pattern (see also Generally at least three species are distinguished. The first group is characterized by hunting and Gathering needs its immediate vicinity, with little regard for excess or organized division of labor.The second group is pastoral in nature, characterized by a constant grazing pattern regulated by the seasons and the nature of the herd or herd.Labor is divided between different groups, usually families, each with their own herd and territory, they live off their herds, use milk and animals for food, and fur and hair as a source of clothing, tents, bottled water, etc. until the harvest is exhausted, and then they dump on new lands.

Certain values ​​result from the demands of nomadic life. The need for mobility leads to reduced ownership: the group's wealth is usually limited to livestock. The interdependence of the members of the tribe, together with the consciousness of common descent, leads to solidarity and associated practices, such as blood feuds. There were many nomadic groups in the ANE and they are mentioned in documents by and . Some have been mentioned in different times and places, the Aramaeans (Aḫlamŭ, Sute-ans-see and various South Arabian groups. Most nomads today are camel nomads who also own the horse, but the patriarchs were apparently "nomadic donkeys" (see The donkey played a significant role in the patriarchal narrative (Genesis 22:3; 24:35; 30:43; 32:5).

Whatever the nature of his life, when he embarked on his travels, he began a nomadic life that continued until and before the Children of Israel settled in Egypt. Although Abraham had camels, his herds consisted mainly of sheep, goats, and donkeys. He moved his tent from one place to another (Gen 13:3, 5, 18; 20:1), establishing grazing rights (13:8). Isaac's story reflects a nomadic or at least semi-nomadic condition, since he settled for a season, planted, and then left (26:12). Likewise, the return of Jacob is described almost as the movement of a small nomadic tribe with its many tents (31:33). The descent of Jacob's family into Egypt (cf. 42; 46:34; 47:4) coincides with similar events in secular history, such as B. the group depicted on a mural in the tomb of Khnum-Hotep III. dated c. 1890 BC Cr.

Future prophecy points to a nomadic life (Genesis 16:11-12), and later references reflect this nomadic condition (37:25). The names of the places and camps of the Ishmaelites support this identification with the Arabs (25:13-18;

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Nomadic life in Syria.

see It is significant that under an Ishmaelite the camels were driven (1 Chronicles 27:30). The Ishmaelites were associated with the Edomites among the enemies of Israel (Ps 83:6).

In Egypt, the Israelites lived in an area frequented by nomads and semi-nomads. he took refuge with a nomadic tribe of shepherds (Exodus 2:15-22) and grazed sheep (3:1). In the wilderness wandering, Israel again became a semi-nomadic people, moving from oasis to oasis with their livestock (Num. 10:31; 33:1). The tabernacle was particularly suitable for a people with a nomadic tradition, such as elements of donkey nomadism (Joshua 15:18; Rid. 10:4; 12:14).

The nomadic life of the Hebrews is reflected in their language, which refers to a man's house as his "tent" (1 Sam. 4:10ff.). To express the idea of ​​getting up early and embarking on a journey, the AT uses the verbh8899,which literally means "to load the backs [of the beasts of burden]" (1 Sam. 15:12 et al.). Images derived from nomadic life are widespread (eg, Ps 78:55; 104:2; Song of Songs 1:5, 8; Isa. 33:20; 40:22; Jer. 10:20). Psalms (Psalm 23; 44:11; 49:14; 78:52, 72; 79:13; 80; 95:7; 100:3). This nomadic past often formed the basis of the language used in prophetic appeals (Isa. 40:11; Jer. 50:6; Ezekiel 34:6, 11; Zechariah 13:7). The prophets used these images as a basis for comparing the duties of the leaders of the people (Jeremiah 23:4; 25:34; Ezekiel 34:2, 5, 8; Zech. 10:2; 11:3, 5). , 8, 15).

(Siehe weiter J. Flight, „The nomadic idea and the ideal in the Old Testament“,JBL42 [1923], 158 ss.; rdevaux, alternative Israel [1961],3-15; J. M. Wagstaff,Die Evolution Von No Leste Scenery: em contour for BODIES. 1840[1985]; A. Keohane,Bedouin: nomads Von a Desert[1994]; J. S. Jabbur,Die bedouin mi a Desert: aspects Von Nomadic life no a Arabica West[1995]; P. M. Kurpershoek,arabia Von a bedouin[2001].)


nomadsRV Apoc. Translation of a common Greek noun meaning "nomadic" (2 Macc. 12:11).

NoNo. Alternate form of KJV from (1 Chronicles 7:27 only).

not for usnot muh to see

Nophcute KJV form of

nonoh'fuh (Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (210)H5871,maybe relatedChapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (211)H5870,"Blow"). An unknown city is mentioned only in one poem: "We destroyed it as far as Nopha, / stretching as far as Medeba" (Numbers 21:30). However, the entire verse is plagued with textual problems (cf.BHS).The MT itself (through the use of aPoint extraordinaryabove the letter r) suggests that the word for "that"H889)maybe it should read like thish836,"Fire" and such a reading is reflected in and in. Thus, the ESV translates: “We ravaged even Nofá; the fire spread to Medeba”; the RSV and NRSV not only accept the reading "fire", but also remove the reference to Nofa and simply translate: "We devastated until the fire spread to Medeba".

norea, Thought Von.Also know asTribute Von Noreah.A very short stretch at (NHC IX, 2). Norea, who appears in other Gnostic documents as an antediluvian savior figure (for example, the daughter of , is here described as being carried into the divine Pleroma to "manifest...with the mind of the Father." The Coptic work is considered is a translation of a Greek original from the 3rd century BC.nhl, 445-47.)

Nordic.The Hebrew termnow h7600,probably. sincesap h7595,"watch, observe") denotes one of the four cardinal points of the compass and is often used as such in the OT (Gen. 13:14ff.). The prophets also use this term to generally refer to identifiable lands that lie northeast or even east of Palestine. These are usually allusions to enemies who were forced to invade Palestine from the N due to the sea to the W and the Arabian desert to the E (see E. Yamauchi,enemies Von a Norte Frontera[1982]). For this reason, even the O of Palestine itself was called N (Jer. 1:14-15; 6:1, 22; et al.). The many references in Dan. 11 through "the king of the north" probably refer to the kings of as opposed to the "king of the south" (ie, Ptolemies of Egypt). the greek termbe pierced G1080it appears twice in the NT and in both cases it means "north" as a cardinal point (Luke 13:29; Revelation 21:13). see also


northeast, Southeast.ver

northerners.This term is used by some versions (eg, RSV, NJPS) to translate HebrewSheponi h7603,which occurs only in Joel 2:20. Since the context describes a plague of locusts, the term generally refers to this plague. Yet why such swarms of locustsgenerallycome from the S, some claim this is Joel's quaint way of describing the invading enemy from the N that is so often specifically mentioned in Jeremiah (ie, NIV and NRSV, "army of the north"). The mention of the DAY OF THE LORD in 1:15 and 2:1 (from the plague section) lends credence to this view. Some believe that Joel had both in mind and that he saw locusts as a symbol of the eschatological day of the Lord.


Northwest, On west.Each of these words corresponds to the Greekcrying G6008miLips G3355(Accusativedesire).They appear only in Acts 27:12, which states that Phoenix was "a port in Crete, looking both to the southwest and to the northwest." However, RSV translates as "northeast and southeast view". See the discussion below

Nose, nostrilsIt is not difficult to see why the nose (Hebrew dualh678,"Face") should be considered as the organ of anger in the body. recounting the power of God and especially his wrath, he says: “Smoke went up from his nostrils; / Out of her mouth came consuming fire, / From her came burning coals” (2 Sam. 22:9; cf. Job 41:20 [Heb. v. 12], where the HAPAX LEGOMENONnāḥīr H5705 it isUse). Anger is associated with the idea of ​​heat. When a person gets angry, the muscles in the body tense up, ready to deal with the object of anger. Body movements become powerful and fast. When tense respiratory muscles work in this way, the result is snoring. As Job says of the horse: "His majestic snorting from him is terrible" (Job 39:20 NIV). The Hebrews considered the respiratory system to be nothing more than its entrance, so the nose was considered the breath of life, not the lungs (Genesis 2:7; 7:22). Therefore, the term can be used to indicate passion (eg, Job 27:3). See also FLOOR


Nose Jewelry.Hebrew women used to wear a ring that went through the right nostril and this is still done by Bedouin women in the O. The rings were made of gold or silver and usually had jewels, pearls or corals hanging from them. she pierced his nose (Genesis 24:22, 30; Heb.I do not know H5690,which can sometimes be referred to and is said to have been worn by the ladies of Jerusalem in nose rings (Isaiah 3:21). Among the jewels the Lord presented as a gift to Jerusalem was a nose piercing (Ezekiel 16:12).


No UE People, No regrets.ver

Beginner.This English term is used by the KJV to represent the Greekneophytes G3745(lit. "newly planted"), occurring only once (1 Tim 3:6; NIV and NRSV, "newly converted"). In his directive he wrote that anyone who aspires to the office of priest must not be new to the Christian faith, "otherwise he will become presumptuous and fall under the same judgment as the devil."


Number.A mathematical unit, part of a series, having a fixed order. The birth and progress of mathematical theory is not evident in the Bible.

• The background of Biblical numbers

• Neolithic evidence of numbers

• Sumerian numbers

• Egyptian numbers

• Akkadian, Assyrian and Babylonian numbers

• Ugaritic and Canaanite numbers

• Later Semitic numbers

•Zahlen I'm OT

• A forms two numbers OT

• Mathematical terms and operations


• Rhetorical numbers

• Symbolic and mystical numbers

• Numerological explanations of the Old Testament

• Non-NT numbers

• The state of Greek numbers and mathematics

• Hellenistic numerology

• Form, terms and operations of NT numbers

• Rhetorical, symbolic and mystical numbers

UE. Die background Von biblical Counting.According to the Christian worldview, the ultimate origin of the concept of number must be traced back to the peculiarity of the laws of God's creation. The concept of number is therefore as old as man, the creature "thinks the thoughts of God according to him." Number is one of the fundamental modalities of the world order.

AND. neolithic Test Von Counting.Cave paintings and glyptic arts from Paleolithic and Mesolithic cultures bear witness to the human sense of form and relationship. And there is evidence to support this sense when an arrangement of several simple geometric shapes is related to provide a complex design to clarify the aesthetics of geometry. However, clusters of holes, posts, stones, and massive megalithic boulders have been found in various Neolithic material finds around the world, all in patterns with regular geometric proportions, often in one-to-one (1:1) correspondence. It is important thatnumbermidigitThey are two concepts that are found in all the tribes and cultures studied since the beginnings of anthropological science.

Without a doubt, the most important were the Sumerian numbers.1miFrom.The idea is reflected in the Biblical STORY OF CREATION, in which the fact of duality for all future human beings was first recognized for the first time. This is also indicated by the evidence from linguistics.Threeis a synonym for "many" in many languages. In fact, it has been pointed out with some weight of evidence that in the older NNE language families, the terms for "three" are related philologically, if not semantically, to terms for "beyond" and "many". The greatest innovation and advance of the Neolithic and protoliterary period, however, was, in any case, it seems to have been preceded by a number.

B. sumerian Counting.Proto-Elamite and proto-Danube issues aside, the Sumerians of the floodplains of southern Iraq were the world's first educated people. See Just as lists, poems, epics, encyclopedias and many other types of writing appear, various numerical concepts and operations are manifested in the Sumerian ADJUSTMENT TABLES. There is no doubt that mental processes that required long periods of concentrated effort arose suddenly with the Neolithic church planting of Sumerian culture. Almost all simple arithmetic can be found in Sumerian economic texts: addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, simple roots, and exponentiation, as well as dealing with many types of fractions. Location information and the elusive term "zero" are conspicuously absent. The most important characteristic of the Sumerian numbers is their sexagesimal character. That is, the base is not 10 (so = 100, = 1000), but 60 = 3600, = 216,000). The system has been adapted for fractions, allowing individual units to be expressed as sexagesimal fractions. So the number 1 can represent 60, a power of 60, 1/60 or even, and 2 for 2 x 60 = 120, 2/60, etc. Common fractions 1/2, 1/3, 1/4, 1/5 were written like this: 30/60, 20/60, 15/60, 12/60.

The legacy of this system is interesting because it was so admirably superior to PESOS, and indeed some scholars have suggested that this was its origin. Due to its importance, almost all subsequent metrology systems in the ANE and the Mediterranean were sexagesimal. This system is best suited for dividing the circle and for calculations on the circle, such as B. Astronomical dials in degrees, minutes, and seconds of arc. However, the full development of a true zero location notation was never achieved. Over time, the Sumerian system developed to have the following cuneiform characters: 1/2, 1/3, 2/3, 1, 10, 60, 10 x 60 = 600, 10 x = 36,000, and the largest unit. die is enormous beyond the reach of the largest Egyptian entity, 100,000. The sexagesimal system was widely used by the two great protosciences of the Sumerian civilization, ASTROLOGY and the cult of the calendar (see There is no doubt that the sexagesimal system of the Sumerians was also known by other ancient peoples (Hittites, Akkadians, Greeks, etc.) and others) that a vague recollection is found in the first books of the Hebrew Bible.

C. Egyptian Counting.Greek historians and many writers since then assume that mathematics originated in the 1980s. The great antiquity of Mesopotamian economic documents with their arithmetic operations, mid-3rd millennium BC. The number system is strictly decimal and, unlike cuneiform, produces simple 1:1 symbols for 1 through 9, 10 through 90, 100 through 900, and 1000 through 9000. The addition and subtraction operations were fairly simple, but multiplication was done by the process of doubling: thus 14 x 14 could be manipulated by dividing a 14 in half and used as 7 x 14 plus 7 x 14, or solved using the 10 as 10x. 14 plus 4 x 14th Division was the reverse of this operation. Complex fractions have been reduced to unit fractions; so 23/45 reduces to 1/5 + 1/5 + 1/9.

Possibly due to their vast experience in handling fractions and creating elaborate tables for solving problems with fractions, the Egyptians arrived at a very good approximation of π, namely 3.16. They also derived a correct formula for the length of a book. The fruits of Egyptian mathematics and its practical application in surveying and construction were transmitted to the Semites of Syria-Palestine, but among the vestiges of the northern cultures there appears no legacy of the theory or of the most refined solutions to problems. Egyptian formalized mathematicians—the scribes in charge of royal enumeration—transformed the linear epigraphic script of hieroglyphics into a cursive series of linked characters. Numbers and their associated operations were treated in the same way. The growing conservative and stubborn mood that characterized the last millennium of Pharaonic Egypt affected the development of numbers and the understanding of number concepts. It remains to be decided to what extent intuition influenced the mechanical conceptions of this Egyptian culture, but they used their clumsy system to record enumerations of up to 1,422,000. This enumeration was hampered by the use of too many duplicate characters that needed to be added together to make them readable. The geometric theory of Egypt, like that of ancient Ionian Greece, was largely based on construction. Even the fundamentals of algebra were never covered.

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Tablet with archaic numbers (from Uruk, ca. 3200 BC).

D. acadiano, Assyrians, Babylonian Counting.The Sumerian sexagesimal system and the Egyptian decimal system seem to have been known to the Akkado-Babylonians, the Semitic cultures that inherited and refined the ancient non-Semitic culture of Mesopotamia. The Assyrians north of the Tigris-Euphrates Valley and the Babylonians to the south were dedicated traders and traders. Literally hundreds of thousands of economic documents, ledgers and contracts were unearthed and examined. They were also skilled builders, and the harsh realities of life on the Iraqi plains forced collaborative and authoritative planning for irrigation and defense. The Babylonian mathematical tables are among the best exact scientific treatises to have survived from antiquity. Of particular importance is that later Babylonian writers came close to discovering two of the most important mathematical tools of later times, "functions" and algebra. In these matters they were centuries ahead of all their contemporaries. Mesopotamia's (and often disastrous) proximity to Palestine made Babylonian mathematical knowledge accessible to Israel, but there is little evidence that this knowledge actually found common acceptance among the twelve tribes.

The Babylonians could calculate the area of ​​a triangle, quadrilateral, trapezoid, and the volume of many types of figures. In the late period of Babylonian culture, practical knowledge trumped the more difficult type of problem solving, and ASTRONOMY dominated the texts. The content of these texts was summarized, refined and known by the Greeks. Thinkers such as Such used these results. His greatest insight was into the area of ​​elementary number theory, still unexplored at the time. The Hebrew terms for cardinal and ordinal numbers were derived from the E-Semitic Akkadian language.

In general, Mesopotamian mathematical texts can be divided into two classes, theProblem Text,that provide methods and insights for solving specific problems with examples, andTisch Text,give tables of consecutive series of numbers under certain operations. The problematic texts appear to have been written during the First Babylonian Dynasty and later copied with minor modifications. It was probably during peacetime (1792-1750 BC) that the great advances in algebra and geometry occurred. In Babylonia, under the Kassite kings, astronomy and astrology were the most important occupations. Tabular texts are probably a subclass of Sumerian-Babylonian listor "catalog science" by which the vast lexical lists were compiled. Below the parallel columns little houses of Sumerian terms and

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Board with geometric shapes to calculate mathematical formulas (from Babylon, c. 1800 BC).

Sets of their Babylonian equivalents were executed and long series of them were discovered, extending to twenty or more tablets. The series of astrological omensTell dingumajig Enlil Guerrapicked up at that time. The same method has already been used with number tables. There are simple tables in which the numbers in a column are followed by their reciprocals and other more complex operations (as in the table YBC 7354-70g; see O. Neugebauer and A. Sachs,Mathematically cuneiform Text[1945],

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17). The text is in the sexagesimal system, but is given below in modern decimal notation:

ShareANDlists a series of numbers in the form of sexagesimal fractions, in this case the interest on loans; cornerstoneBgives the reciprocal; cornerstoneCit isB ×two; and the factor constant 2 is given in the columnD.With this table, a clerk or clerk could easily manipulate each set of numbers to the corresponding interest rate. Recent research has found what we now call Fer-mat problems in Babylonian mathematics, and even formulas for the length and area of ​​figures such that one of the following expressions is valid: + bx = c, – bx = c and both derived equations bx – = c and bx = (E.M. Bruins inJohn53/3 [1966]: 194-211). Under the Babylonian and later Assyrian rulers, astronomical charts flourished again, and great strides were made in the precision with which observations of the heliacal rise of the fixed stars, planetary ephemeris, and solar and lunar eclipses were recorded.

When Babylon 539 B.C. fell to Persia, the Babylonian tradition of mathematics passed to Iran. A final flowering of astronomical observation, simple algebra, and tables of lunar, planetary, and solar cycles occurred after the Greek conquest of Mesopotamia in 333 BC. instead of The last vestige of this great mathematical tradition was handed down in the Seleucid and Arsacid periods and became extinct in the Middle Ages. However, two other aspects of Akkadian, Assyrian, and Babylonian numerals were important. Cardinal and order terms for numbers derived from cuneiform and Semitic influenced these terms in Ugaritic and Hebrew. Furthermore, Mesopotamian scribes were so adept at handling numbers that they often used number signs to denote certain common words in cuneiform texts (for example, 15 = acc.ḫamiššer"right" and Sumer.MINIMUM[para sexagesimal 2, 30] = decimal 150, acc.ḫamšame;cf. W. white emClio medicine[1970], 197ss.).

MI. Ugaritic mi Canaanter Counting.The culture of an ancient coastal city that stood on the site of the modern Syrian city of Ras Shamra is almost entirely Mesopotamian. Like their Assyro-Babylonian cousins, the Ugarit W Semites used the system of number signs, but there is little evidence that they succeeded in grasping the general concepts of mathematics, algebra, and number theory that were known across the Tigris and Euphrates. . . In the Ugarit trade texts, not only the numbers are Sumerian-Akkadian, but also the names of the products. It almost seems that Akkadian is the language of business and finance. In the complex poetic literature of Ugarit, written in the difficult language of the W Semites, now known as "ugaritisch,Numbers are written phonetically. However, both ledgers and literature lack the intricacies of the sexagesimal system in which Babylon was glorious, and simple decimal operations predominate.

Evidence from other parts of the ancient world shows that workers who could not calculate in Babylonian cuneiform used simple dashes or vertical lines in 1:1 correspondence with the objects they wished to count together. These tally marks were discovered on numerous pottery shards and stone blocks scattered along the Mediterranean coast. The probability that some of these markings are still identified on some Canaanite building blocks or pillars is very high. However, all of these systems have an underlying simplicity; In Phoenician inscriptions, these character groups usually fall into the following patterns: I=1, II=2, III=3, I III=4, II III=5, III III=6, I III III=7, II III III = 8, III III III = 9, and a bar of approximately the same length was used for 10. For numbers greater than 19, there are large differences. The character for 20 was usually written with a character similar to "N" or "H", but distinct from each of the "alphabet" letters. The numbers 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 and their combinations with the whole numbers 1 through 9 in the ones place were written relative to "20." For example, 83 is written as III I II N N N N. It is interesting to note that while repeating characters were written in groups of four by Egyptian scribes, the Canaanites and Phoenicians grouped their whole numbers in groups of three.

The hundreds character is a modified quantity "One" was added as a small vertical bar to the right of the character to indicate one hundred, two for two hundred, and so on. Again, the thousand sign was not clearly derived from any of the consonant symbols. Larger numbers are not known, but a little imagination might lead us to believe that the whole numbers were indicated by the verticals.

The wide diffusion of the language and the associated E-Semitic culture has allowed for a significant distraction in the types of numeral notations detectable in the various Aramaic sources. Those of the military colony have few numerical characters beyond those common in later Hebrew texts. However, Epigraphic Aramaic contains a system close to Phoenician. However, the character for 20 is obviously one, and the characters for two and three thousand are attested. These symbols are in the form ofYes actuallywith the specified integer on the right. The handling of the actual operations was probably carried out according to the Egyptian manner described above.

F. later track Counting.There is much more evidence of the number systems used by Semitic peoples after the rise of Greece and the founding of Greek colonies in Egypt, Magna Graecia, and along the Black Sea coast. Of particular importance are the Syrian Palmyrene and Arab-Nabataean systems to the south. These two numberings were developed based on the late Egyptian hieratic script and a separate character for 5 was introduced. The setup is similar to certain remote control styles such as EnglishyUsage follows that of the Canaanites and Phoenicians, except that the extras are placed to the left of the five; for example IY=6, IIY=7, IIIY=8 and IIIIY=9. The "ten" resembles the Egyptian hieratic sign for a long measure with a sharp descending rhythm and frequent sharp turning. The symbol for hundred is reverse English.PAG.Symbols for numbers of larger magnitude use the determinant of hundred with the integer pointer placed to the left. Curious doubling of the sign at 20 remains up to 70; the highest value below 99 has yet to be discovered.

None of these possible consonantal characters remotely resemble the initial consonants of these number words when spelled. There is no doubt that these symbols are number signs. Like the Phoenician writing system, which was an extensive and greatly simplified syllabary, the letter system was later modified to serve as an ordered phonetic alphabet among the Punic culture, and was later used to denote Greek-like numbers. . All the evidence points to the Greek development of this system and its parallel, later accepted by the Semites. As this system was unreadable to the Greeks and other Indo-Europeans, it was an effective argument among Semitic merchants and may be one of the Carthaginian merchant tricks wrought by Plautus in his early Latin comedies.

II. counting no a Old Testament

AND. Die the picture Von Old Testament Counting.In the now available OT MSS, the numbers are written phonetically, but there is no reason to believe that a more direct numbering system was not available. Masonic signs and possibly simple counters have been unearthed in Israel. The earliest evidence for epigraphic inscriptions provides few figures: nothing is as common or widespread as later Aramaic and Semitic inscriptions. The few numbers that appear in the earliest Palestinian inscriptions (the calendar, the OSTRACA of Samaria, and the inscription of have the numbers 1-3 of magnitude so small that they are of little use as evidence, or are written phonetically.

There is no doubt that the modified Egyptian system used among the Semites in the rest of the eastern Mediterranean was also used among the Jews. The fact that many of the numbers recorded in the earliest text autographs were written in this system and later transcribed into phonetic spellings explains many of the early textual errors involved in the transmission of numbers. The transliteration of pure numbers into alphabetic numbers is known, in which the consecutive order of the letters in the writing system is not equal to the consecutive order of the integers. The main difficulty of a system of this type is that associated operations cannot be defined. Another source of error lies in the transmission of sexagesimal or vigesimal characters in decimal notation. In the surviving Old Testament MSS and several versions, the numbers are written phonetically. The Masoretes pointed to such terms as if they were regular nouns and adjectives, and consequently completely altered any original differentiation in any way that might have existed. However, there are many problems regarding the basis and method of operation used for certain notations, such as in Ugaritic, which appear to follow the Hittite hieroglyph. (Cf. C.H. Gordon,Ugaritic Text book[1965], §7.1-2.)

B. Mathematically conditions mi The operation.The terms for the Hebrew numbers used in the OT are as follows:

The number 1 (cardinal) isH285(Cognate with Ugaritic. This word occurs 960 times in the OT, including contexts that have theological significance (Genesis 1:9; Deuteronomy 6:4; et al.). Although it can function as an ordinal, "first" (cf. Genesis 1:5, 8), another term is often used with this meaning,H8037(derived fromh8031,"head"), which occurs some 180 times in the OT (Gen 8:13 et al.).

the digit is 2H9109(dual form, as usual in other Semitic languages; related to Ugar.nm,Akk.woman/train,Egypt. This term, which occurs 768 times in the OT (Genesis 1:6 and others), is related to words meaning "repetition," "succession," and the like. the atomic number,H9108,"Second" occurs 157 times in the OT (1:8 et al.).

the digit is 3šālōš H8993(with different spellings; cf. Ugar. ṯlṯ and Acc.Joke)which occurs 430 times in the AT (Gen 6:10); the ordinary number,differs h8958,105 bad (1:13 rain).

the digit is 4H752(vgl. Ugar. Akk.arma),which occurs about 250 times in the OT (Gen 2:10 et al.); the ordinary number,H8055,less than 75 times (1:19 et al.).

Or digit 5,ḥāntesš H2822(cf. Ugar.ḥmš,Akk.hamsum),occurs 340 times in the OT (Gen 14:9 et al.); the ordinary number,ḥāmīšī h2797,42 bad (1:23 rain).

The number 6, šēšH9252(vgl. Ugar. ṯṯ, Akk.shishhum/seshshum),occurs 289 times in the OT (Gen 7:6 et al.); the ordinary number,bottle h9261,23 bad (1:31 rain).

the number 7,H8679(vgl. Ugar. Akk.sebum),occurs 390 times in the OT (Gen 4:15 et al); the ordinary number,h8668,95 times (2:2 and others). This is the seventh day of rest and perhaps the Hebrew termSaturday H8701it is related to the word "seven", but the issue is controversial.

or digit 8,šĕmoneh H9046(cf. Ugar.simulator,Akk.Shamariam,More frequentlytogether),occurs 109 times in the OT (Gen 17:12 et al); the ordinary number,šĕmini h9029,only 31 times (Exodus 22:30 et al.; on the musical termsheminit,see MUSIC VI.C).

or digit 9,H9596(vgl. Ugar. Akk.sweat),occurs less than 30 times in the OT (Gen 29:26 et al.); the ordinary number,h9596,nur 7 mal (Lev. 23:22 et al.).

or digit 10,H6924(Ugar. Ach.Yes actuallyas well as other Semitic languages), occurs less than 60 times in the OT (Gen. 16:3 et al.), but related formsH6927(Gen 18:32 et al.) andH6930(Exodus 18:21 and others) that have the same meaning are used with comparable frequency. also the shapesH6925miH6926(used only in combination with other terms to form the numbers 11-19; see below) occurs over 300 times in total (cf. also the verbh6923,skin and hipphil "decimate"). the atomic number,h6920,generally denotes the tenth in a series, mainly of dates (Gen 8:5 et al); It happens less than 30 times. However, there is also a noun.h6928,means "tenth" and occurs with comparable frequency (apart from Exodus 29:40 in Leviticus and Numbers only).

The digits 11 to 19 are formed by first defining the device number and then the formH6925(with mask. nouns) oH6926(with feminine nouns). The number 20 is shown withH6929(Genesis 6:3 et al.; this term seems to be the plural of 10, but originally it was probably a dual form.) The plural forms 3 through 9 are used for the numbers 30 through 90 (there are no separate ordinals for these numbers). As the Akkadian-Assyro-Babylonian system adopted the Sumerian sexagesimal system, the numbers from 30 to 90 and their multiples do not come from the same sources as the other Semitic languages.

The term for 100 isH4395(Ugar. acc. prob. simply meant "crowd, large group," a detail sometimes cited to explain the long ages attributed to various antediluvian figures); it appears 580 times in the AT, usually in combination with another figure (Gn 5:3 et al.). Its dual form can be used for the number 200 (11:23).

The above powers are expressed by a combination of terms, including always IIH547,"thousand" (cf. Ugar. and other Semitic languages, but no acc. usingstarted).This term is formally identical to the common Hebrew word for "ox, herd."H546),from which some think the first was originally derived. In addition, other meanings developed from the word for "thousand", such as "a large military unit" (which originally must have been about 1,000 soldiers, eg Numbers 31:14). But such units were usually tribal subdivisions, so the word could simply mean "clan" (1 Sam. 10:19 et al.) and possibly even "district" (cf. Micah 5:2). When the word has these derived meanings, many scholars consider it a separate term IIIH548;I see.HOLA,1:59-60;DCH,1:297-300). Numbers expressed in hundreds or hundreds occur more than 500 times, while numbers expressed in thousands or thousands occur more than 400 times. The highest frequency is found in the books of Numbers and 1-2 Chronicles. The number is most often used when reporting a census (Numbers 1:21 et al.).

Numbers above a thousand are not defined in the Semitic languages ​​except in Akkadian. In Phoenician all these numbers are written in the sign system and not written as words. In OT poetic and dramatic contexts, single is used to express a large number; the exact statistic is indeterminate (Numbers 10:36) and must be understood as a group or subdivision of the citizen army and not as an exact number. Military units of this type are often identified by terms derived from numbers (for example, the Roman CENTURION rarely had exactly 100 men under his command). In fact, the derived formH477means "chief, [tribal] leader" (Gen 36:15-43 et al.;I see NIDOTE,1:406-10). Larger numbers are indicated byrĕbābā H8047(Willrabia H8041,"many, great"), which simply means "great company"; it is usually translated as "ten thousand" (Lev. 26:8 et al.).

Although the Hellenistic use of acrophonic numbers (that is, symbols derived from the initial letter of the name for individual numbers) seems to have encouraged other Mediterranean coastal peoples to use their alphabetic systems as number signs, there is absolutely no evidence that a practice was ever established among the Jews of the usual OT period. The oldest evidence of such use is found on coins (2nd century BC).

OT Hebrew is very imprecise about fractions, which were the mainstay of Akkadian and Egyptian mathematical operations. In general, Hebrew uses the feminine forms of ordinal numbers for fractions. The most notable exception is the termḥāṣī h2942,"half" is used even when a reasonable degree of precision is expected (Exodus 25:10 et al.; this term is derived from the verbHas as h2951,play "share", a peculiar expression of the Hebrew. and does not imply a quantitative measure). The fraction 1/3 is the regular ordinal (Numbers 15:6 et al), while 2/3 is expressed with the idiompi-šĕnayim(literally, "two mouths," as in Zechariah 13:8; cf. Deuteronomy 21:17; 2 Kings 2:9). Regularly expressed are the fractions 1/4 (1 Sam. 9:8), 1/5 (Gen. 47:24), 1/6 (Ezekiel 46:14), 1/10 (Exodus 16:36), 2/ 10 (Lev. 23:13), 3/10 (Lev. 14:10) and 1/100 (Nehemiah 1:11). The unusual fractions 4/5 (Gen 47:24) and 9/10 (Ne 11:1) are expressed in terms of "four parts" and "nine parts."

There is absolutely no evidence that mathematical concepts like powers, square roots, or infinity were recognized or understood. The simple operations of addition (Gen 5:3-31 et al.), subtraction (adopted by Gen 18:28 et al.), multiplication (Lev 25:8 et al.), and division (Numbers 31:27 et al. . ) are only sparingly mentioned. However, since most of the mathematicians among the craftsmen of the time were practical and applied, the lack of mathematical knowledge demonstrated by the OT is not of particular importance. The terms and acts mentioned are all correct as used herein, but are not intended to be exhaustive.

C. enums.By far the majority of numbers in the Old Testament are age or census numbers. These two areas create some of the most difficult text problems encountered.

1. Together liza, Change.All the ages assigned to the OT characters agree with common experience, except those of the Antediluvian period (Gen 5). The ages of the to line are all very long, from 365 to 969 years. Much has already been written about this age series. The conservative view has traditionally been that conditions in the cosmos before the Flood were such that great longevity was not only plausible but common. Two factors speak against this simple solution. (a) Longevity does not play a special role in the biblical theology of biblical revelation. (b) Other ancient documents that describe antediluvian antiquity span great ages (p.sumerian König List).A careful analysis of the ages shows that they are all two types of numbers: multiples of five (5n), or multiples of five plus seven, or twice seven (5n) + (7 x 2). For example, the age of Seth, 912 = 5 x 181 + 7. Since each of the ten ages mentioned in Genesis 5 can be reduced in this way, along with many other ages and chronological totals of the patriarchs, the scheme does not can be summarized. an accidental being The purpose of the race is enforced and reinforced by the way his age is given: "And all the days of Lamech were seventy and seven hundred, and he died" (5:31, lit. trans.)

The basic structure of multiples of five is consistently maintained in the sexagesimal system plus the perfective seven, which is repeated throughout the history of creation. Furthermore, this pattern appears consistently in the Prophets, where the numbers 600,000; 60,000; 30,000; 12,000; 6,000; 3,000; 1200; 600; 300; and 120 are common (U. Cassuto,AND commentary a a tripe Von Genesis[1961], 249-68). Numerous attempts to reinterpret the term "years" used in patriarchal times have been unsuccessful; the OT simply uses the term in no other sense than the solar year. The appearance of the large sexagesimal numbers in the first chapters of Genesis proves the antiquity of the text or literary tradition used by

2. Grande number liza, Census.The most consistently confusing material in the AT from MS to MS and from version to version is the record of large CENSUS numbers. Undoubtedly, the origin of the difficulty is due to several changes in the notation systems before and during the transcription of the text. Some notable problematic passages are: 7,000 charioteers in 1 Chronicles 19:18, but 700 in 2 Sam. 10:18; 40,000 stores in 1 Ki. 4:26 (MT), but 4,000 in 2 Chr 9:25; "eighteen years" in 2 Kings. 24:8, but "eight" in 2 Chronicles 36:9 (MT). Notable is the fact that 2 or its multiples are often replaced by 1, 10, etc., or 3 and its multiples. In many cases, these problems can be explained by careful analysis without resorting to flimsy and innovative solutions. Some of the difficulties already mentioned can only be understood as primitive textual errors in one family of MSS or another (note the important study by J.W. Wenham onTynBul18 [1967]: 19-53).

D. Rhetorical Counting.Since numbers in literature were largely written down and used as words, all Semitic languages ​​developed artistic usage patterns for number concepts. Ugaritic texts, like Akkadian, often have a device for constructing the literary conclusion with fixed series of numbers.

1. climate mi idiomatic Dressed.All ancient Semitic literature relies on a series of numbers (syndextically or asyndextically linked) to effect progression and anticipation in narratives. The standard form is 1-2, 3-4, 5-6, followed by a change or ending on 7 (cf.Epic Von Gilgamesh11.140-45); the creational order of Genesis develops precisely in this way (Gn 1,3-2,3; cf. 8,4; Ex 16,27; and often; see also M. G. Kline onWTJ 20[1957-58]: 146-57). The idiomatic use of numbers implies the inclusion of a number in a literary passage that signifies an indefinite quantity. For some indeterminate situations, the OT uses 3 (2 Kings 9:32; Isa. 17:6; Amos 4:8; et al.); for indefinitely large numbers, 40 is used, where 40 years is the length of a generation (Exodus 16:35; Deuteronomy 34:7; et al.). It must be recognized that ancient societies lacked the passion for accurate and objective statistics that characterizes modern culture. In Persian, Greek, and other literature, numbers like 40 are often used simply as a synonym for "many," "moderate crowd," and other similar expressions.

2. Poetic serie Von Counting.Parallel construction of numbers is known in Akkadian, Ugaritic, Northwest Semitic, and Hebrew. According to the canons of the parallel poetic style, the same nominal form is not repeated in both verses (see POETRY II). Since there are almost no synonymous digits, standard usage has become a number X in position "A" and a second number X + 1 in the phrase "B". The OT contains the following sequences: X = 1 // X + 1 = 2 (Deut. 32:30; Rid. 5:30; 1 Kings 6:10; Ezra 10:13; Neh. 13:20; Job 33: 14; Psalm 62:11; Jeremiah 3:14). X = 2 // X + l = 3 (Deuteronomy 17:6; 2 Kings 9:32; Job 33:29; Isa. 17:6; Hosea 6:2; Amos 4:8). X = 3 // X + 1 = 4 (Exodus 20:5; 34:7; Numbers 14:18; Deuteronomy 5:9; Prov. 30:15; 18, 21, 29; Amos 1:3, 6, 9 , 11, 13; 2:1). X = 4 // X + 1 = 5 (Is 17,6). X = 5 // X + 1 = 6 (2 Kings 13:19). X = 6 // X + 1 = 7 (Job 5:19; Prov. 6:16). X = 7 // X + 1 = 8 (Micah 5:5). X = 1,000 // X + "l" = 10,000 (Deuteronomy 32:30; 1 Sam. 18:7; 21:11; 29:5; Psalm 91:7; this pattern suggests some perception of the poetic as arithmetic signs of these numbers). However, the sequence is also used in prose narratives to indicate an indefinite, usually small number (Judges 5:30 et al.). Occasionally the number "B" is considered more specifically (eg, Prov. 30:18, where the sequence is 3 // 4 and the four aspects are listed in the following context).

MI. Symbolic mi mystic Counting.Unfortunately, the frequent use of symbolism terms applied to Biblical numbers has led to little more than conjecture. This result was used to support the extremely opposite position, namely that nowhere in the text is there any reference to the mystical use of numbers. This is also wrong. There is undoubtedly a correct sequence of numbers that represents the creation order 7, the ritual 3, and the unique 1. Larger numbers like 40, 80, 120, and 1000 are also used meaningfully. (For opposing views on this difficult question, see E. W. Bullinger,number No Writing[1913] de OT Allis,The Bible numeric[1961].)

F. numerological explanations Von a A.Most of these types of exegetical systems were based on the assumption that the later Jewish system of denoting numbers with the consecutive letters of the Hebrew alphabet was practiced during Biblical times. Therefore, each term in MT can be decoded into a numerical code. For example, the consonantal text of Genesis 1:1 begins with a compound word decipherable from numbers like š=300, so the first word of Genesis is equal to the sum of these numbers, 913, which is then mystically interpreted. . This kind of magical nonsense arose during the Hellenistic era and was applied to many ancient writings under the termRegistry(a corruption of Gr.Geometry;For a summary of this method and its historical development, see J. J. Davis,Biblical Numerology[1968], 125-56; Recent attempts to find special meanings in Biblical numbers include D. Washburn,Die Original Code no a Bible: Use Science mi Mathematics for Discover God Fingerprints[1998] and CJ Labuschagne,numeric mysteries Von a Bible: rediscovery a The Bible codes[2000]).

third counting no a NEW TESTAMENT.In general, the NT contains significantly less numerical material than the OT. For the most part, they are simple counts of masses or groups or figures of commerce, taken for illustration from the world of commerce.

AND. Die Illness Von Greek counting mi Mathematics.Since the dawn of the Ionian philosophers, the Greek world has considered numbers worthy of the highest and lasting study. The era of Plato and Aristotle (circa 300 BC) produced the great mathematical discoveries of the Greek civilization.

B. Hellenistic Numerology.The roots of numerological number manipulation among the Greeks certainly go back to Pythagoras (c. 582-500 BC), whose mystical brotherhood of disciples undermined any objective scientific merit of their teacher's work, making his name and teachings in a quagmire of magic and ritual. . After THE conquests (ca. 322 BC), this remnant settled in the Semitic states of the ANE. Although they often used the Greek system of notation, which as yet had no operational meaning, the Semitic peoples seem to have retained their own simple mercantile arithmetic. The influence of Plotinus and Neoplatonism reinforced this mystical tendency to the point that the gematria was ubiquitous in various Hellenistic schools of thought. Last but not least, Gnosticism was important, from which it passed on to the post-Nicaean Church and into the Middle Ages.

C. the picture, Conditions, mi The operation Von New Testament Counting.The various numbers recorded in the NT follow the Semitic pattern rather than the Greek pattern. They are never indicated by numbers, but rather written as words, either because they are direct quotes or allusions (or a variant of the TM) or because they are translated from the Aramaic usage of Christ and the Apostles (which is very close to the connected TM). Phoen.-Hebr. Pattern). There is no mention of mathematical operations in the NT apart from the use of the common Greek verbarithmetic g749,"count" (Mt. 10:30; Lk. 12:7; Rev. 7:9 only) and the less commonGreek Psáphizo G6028,"calculate, calculate [with pebbles]" (Lu 14:28 only; Rev 13:18).

In Greek syntax, numbers are treated and declined like nouns, and the grammatical genders (masculine, feminine, neuter) of numbers 1 through 4 are distinguished by their morphological consistency. Numbers above 20 are indeclinable and are treated as regular plural adjectives. In addition to all the single-digit numbers, many numbers from 10 to 100 and some from 100 to 666, the NT contains a few thousands and some very large numbers, such as 23,000 (1 Cor. 10:8), 50,000 (Acts 19: 19). ) and 144,000 (Rev. 7:4 et al.). the figurative numberuncountable uncountable kai Chiliadén Withdrawal,"Myriads upon myriads and thousands upon thousands" indicates millions (Rev. 5:11;uncountable G3689can mean "a very large indefinite number" or specifically "ten thousand"), whiledysmiriades uncountableoften translated as “two hundred million” (9:26;dysmyria G1490is 20,000, but "the indefinite pl. suggests various units of twenty thousand multiplied by 10,000", indicating an "indefinite number of incalculable magnitude" [BDAG, 252a]).

D. Rhetorical, symbolic, mi mystic Counting.The same numbers that are given symbolic meaning in the OT (3, 5, 7, 12) are also used symbolically in the NT. This is due to the scrupulous attention that the NT pays to every aspect of Christ's messianic fulfillment, such as the reestablishment of the twelve apostles to the sons of Jacob as heads of the twelve tribes of Israel. The only purely symbolic number is the "thousand" applied to the time period in the apocalyptic passages. The only purely mystical number, in the sense of mysterious, is 666, epithet of the ANTICHRIST or his agent in Apoc. 1:18 p.m. The various people identified by this number over the centuries were generally determined by gematria and the permutation of the resulting numbers. Over the centuries, such speculations were the most popular choice ("Nero Caesar" in Hebrew can be spelledqsr number,and the numerical values ​​are:

(See but L. L. Conant,Die number concept[1896]; H.G. Zeuthen,History a Mathematics I am ancient mi middle Ages[1896]; K. Sethe,Von counting mi numbers no a ancient Egypt[1916]; T.Heide,AND History Von Greek Mathematics, 2volumes [1921]; F. Cajori,AND History Von Mathematics[1926]; Oh Neugebauer,To die Fundamentals a Egyptian fractional calculation[1926]; A. Heller,Biblical numerical symbolism[1936]; F. Thoreau-Dangin,Text Mathematics Babylonian[1938]; idem., "Sketch of a history of the sexagesimal system",osiris7 [1939]: 95-141; ET Bell,developing Von Mathematics[1945]; I could.,Numerology[1945]; O. Neugebauer and A. Sachs,Mathematically cuneiform Text[1945]; Oh Neugebauer,Die I agree Science no ancient[1957]; K. Vogel,pre-greek Mathematics[1959]; F. Lasserre,Die birthday Von Mathematics no a Era Von Plato[1964]; CB Boyer,AND History Von Mathematics[1968];EncJud[1972], 12:1254-61; G. Robins y C. Schute,Die reno Mathematically Papyrus: em alternative Egyptian Text[1987]; G. Flegg, Ed.,counting of a Change[1989]; K. R. Nemet-Nejat,cuneiform Mathematically Text And yes and reflection Von Daily life no Mesopotamia[1993]; G. Ifra,Die Universal History Von Counting: Von prehistory for a invention Von a calculator[1998];abd,4:1139-46.)


counting, tripe Von.The fourth book of the Bible, and traditionally one of the five books of Numbers, tells the story of the Hebrew people as they wandered in the desert from the mountains to the plains of


• Bottom


• Authorship



• Special problems


• Biblical evaluation of the period

• Desert trip itinerary


• Without Sinai

• Sinai to Kadesh

• Stay in the desert

•On the plains of Moab

• Theology

UE. Title.The title in English is a literal translation of the title in(Arithmoi)and reflects the censuses of Nos. 4 and 26. Some have suggested that this title was chosen by someone with a superficial acquaintance with the book, since the censuses seem to have very little to do with its main trends. The usual Hebrew title,half Bar,"in the wilderness" (based on the fifth word of 1:1) seems much more appropriate (sometimes the first word of the verse,wayĕdabbēr,"and he [YHWH] spoke" serves as the title). However, both censuses relate directly to the general themes of the book. The first represents the organization of the people for the journey ahead and the occupation of the land that would soon follow. The second census and the attendant reorganization were caused by the people's lack of obedience to God due to the consequent death of this generation in the wilderness and the preparation of the new generation to finally possess the land.

II. Fund.As the date of Exodus is the subject of considerable controversy, it is difficult to place the events recounted in this NAE book in their precise context. Exodus is variously dated to 1440 B.C. with date of. until about 1260 B.C. C. (See The earlier date was generally preferred by conservatives on the basis of various Biblical chronologies, notably 1 Kings 6:1. Archaeologists have preferred the later date.

The Book of Numbers is particularly important in this debate on one point: parts of the book (#20-25 and 31) deal with Israel's relations with the various kingdoms by a well-known archaeologist, the late Nelson Glueck, and extensive explorations of Negev and Transjordan -Areas between 1930 and 1940 (cf. his work,scans no Leste Palestine,4 vols., AASOR [1934-51]). His results convinced him that for much of the second millennium B.C. before Christ, probably for climatic reasons, they were largely uninhabited and there was only a sedentary occupation after 1300. If this were true, the initial date of the Exodus would be impossible.

However, the validity of Glueck's findings has been questioned. Especially G. L. Harding(Die antiques Von Jordan[1959], 33) points to a wide variety of tombs from the period (1750-1550 BC) in the vicinity of Amman (Bible of the Ammonites). These tombs speak against a purely nomadic settlement. In addition, other discoveries have called into question the reliability of surface observations alone without an accompanying archaeological "dig."

Whichever date is accepted for the Exodus, political conditions on the Peninsula and in the West would have been favorable to the Hebrews. 1440 B.C. C. A. C., during the reign of Akhenaten, Egyptian influence outside its own borders was at its lowest point. In the later situation, although II (1290-1225) and his predecessor Seti I reasserted their control over Palestine, Ramses does not seem to have had much influence over the Negev and Arabah. This is confirmed by two facts. First, in 1225, Ramesses's successor had to launch an attack on these areas to restore control. Second, a recently found Egyptian temple in Arabah appears to have been largely destroyed early in Ramses' reign and remained in that state during his lifetime, only to be repaired several years after his death. In any case, it would confirm the biblical indication that the Hebrews were not bothered by any outside power.

Some research on the role of the Midianites at the end of the second millennium has concluded that Biblical references to this group fit this period well, and indeed would be strange for any other. They were a nomadic people who owned little territory but controlled large areas through commercial and military ventures. To see

third Composition.It has long been recognized that this book is more structurally diverse than any other in the Pentateuch. Although the main organizing principle is chronological (the book begins at Sinai and ends 38 years later at the threshold of the Promised Land), much of the material appears to be in thematic order. For example, Exodus ends with an account of the construction of the This event is recapitulated in Num. 9:15-21, indicating the beginning of the next section of the narrative. The question remains: the events of ch. 1-8 happened before or after the construction of the tabernacle?

This example, and several others discussed later in this discussion, have led many scholars to believe that the Book of Numbers is not a literary entity. That is, the materials in the book were not strictly organized according to any principle. Rather, the book is a collection of those accounts pertaining to the Desert period, with various materials (laws, genealogy, travel journals) fitted into a loosely constructed chronological framework. The presence of smooth transitions between episodes in some cases and their absence in others supports this conclusion.

The Wellhausen School of Biblical Criticism found the variety of material in the book to be a good fit for their documentary hypothesis. Based on the evidence of two divine names,Señor(usually translated andElohim("God"), the difficulty of reconciling the practices recorded in Judges and Samuel with those prescribed in the Pentateuch, and the refusal to acknowledge special revelations, nineteenth-century scholars concluded that the Pentateuch, in its present form, It arose at the end of the 19th century. OT history, in the time of Moses and not in the time of Moses. His claim was that four different books or documents were written throughout the history of Israel, each with a slightly more developed concept of God and religion than the last. These were J (Yahweh, ca. 850 BCE [dates vary from scholar to scholar]), E (Elohim, ca. 750 BCE), D (Deuteronomy, 621 BCE), and P (Priestly document, 444 BC). J and E were first combined, then D was added. Eventually, P was included in the JED compilation, giving the whole thing a decidedly legalistic and priestly look. See more III.

As noted above, the apparent diversity of numbers seemed clear evidence of the validity of such an approach. The following sections have been attributed to JE: Numbers 10:29-12:15; 20:14-21; 21:12-32; 22:2-25:5. P is said to have contained the rest of the book's contents except 21:33-35, which was assigned to D (due to a parallel with Deut 3:1-3). J and E could not be separated numerically because one criterion, the supposedly different use of divine names, is not applicable. The names are used interchangeably. In fact, the passages where, according to critical theory, one would expect to use "God" are precisely those that use "Yahweh" and vice versa.

The fallacies and weaknesses inherent in the JEDP system have long been pointed out by conservative theologians, as well as others who are not so oriented. However, it was the accumulation of vast amounts of information about the NEC that caused a fundamental reorientation in the theory. The following points are relevant to the study of numbers. The ANE did not know how the documentary hypothesis was constructed. No example can be given of two (let alone four) separate complete books and most of their content nested in a single volume. It seems that a written literature grew as stories or groups of traditions coalesced into a whole. Often (for example, in the epic) the same lore units can be combined in different ways to form several different sets. But the Documentary Hypothesis saw the process reversed, with multiple integers breaking down into units to form a new whole.

Secondly, it is evident that the nature of the strict confinement of the material (only narrative in this volume, only legislation there, only priestly concerns there) is an artificial criterion for distinguishing different sources.

A third apparent fallacy was Wellhausen's belief that things would only get worse. A fuller understanding of history has shown that human progress has generally occurred in great spurts of development or understanding, followed by regression, and then long centuries of slow recovery of what was once temporarily possessed. This fits well with the history of Israel. The revelation at Sinai could not even be carried across the desert without being forgotten and/or corrupted.

Fourth, it is now very clear that the belief about the backwardness of the priesthood and priestly concerns in Israel is totally wrong. The primacy of the priest and the cult in all early NNE civilizations makes it impossible to deny Biblical claims (such as those in Numbers) that priestly concerns were of great importance in early Israel.

If the JEDP system cannot adequately explain the composition of the Book of Numbers, how did it come to be in its current form? JS Wright (inEvQ25 [1953]: 2-17) made the following suggestion: Assuming that Moses wrote the Pentateuch (see authorship section below), it is reasonable to assume that different types of information were collected in different ways. Many records may have been noted as B. Itineraries if time permits. These, along with Moses' personal memories and observations, were kept with his own belongings. The revelations and legal material may have been given to the priests for publication and adoption. Scribes or others may have recorded other information, such as genealogies.

Toward the end of his life, Moses may have felt that this large body of material relating to the Exodus and the Sojourn, recorded and archived in various ways, should be brought together in a library or scroll collection. It is believed that at this time Moses had prepared a set of longer scrolls containing the basic narratives. The beginning of these scrolls is marked by a somewhat slow summary of the situation at the end of the previous scroll. In addition, there were several long scrolls of the law. Since these two groups were placed roughly in chronological order, the shorter records, consisting of revelations, laws, and genealogies, were placed in the spaces between the larger groups. Sometimes these smaller units were placed as close to their correct chronological position as possible, but other times they were treated more thematically.

When these suggestions are applied to numbers, the result is this: the previous narrative scroll ended at the end of the present book of Exodus. Thereafter, all the revelations and regulations regarding worship and covenant given during the Sinai period (many of them before the establishment of the tabernacle) were gathered together. These regulations cover the entire book of Leviticus and extend to Numbers 9:15. They are divided into two places, Numbers 1-4 and 7, by various records that may also have been in the care of the priests.

The new narrative begins in Numbers 9:15 with a long introduction. This narrative continues until ch. 14 where it stops abruptly. The next chapter consists of various revelations and records dealing with the observance of worship. Its meaning at this point in the report is not entirely clear (see discussion of content below). Wright suggests that chs. 16-19 are grouped together because they all deal with priestly privileges. The next two chapters appear to be a collection of narrative fragments, supplemented by an itinerary and quotations from a now-lost Hebrew epic of the time. The story of Balaam (chs. 22-24), with its Mosaic epilogue, represents a return to a highly detailed narrative. 30. Covers census records, disclosures, disclosure reports, and trial reports. So chap. 31 summarizes the narrative presented in ch. 25 and continues until 32:32. The rest of the book is again a hodgepodge.

This recognition of the book's composite literary character in no way negates its unity of perspective, purpose, or theology. It is clear that all units of the tradition have the same vision of God and his purpose in Hebrew history. These are not reports whose fundamentally different purposes or understandings have been distorted to fit a larger point of view. Rather, the tremendously successful combination of such disparate literary structures was only possible because of their remarkable internal unity.

4. literary authorship.Tradition has long held that the Pentateuch was written by Moses. This tradition goes back at least to the NT, where Jesus and the apostles casually bear witness (they never argue). Several scholars have questioned this. One of the first was in the 5th century BC. Latin Translator BC. AD Without questioning the provenance of the Pentateuch of Moses, he expressed his belief that the five books had been considerably revised, with him being responsible for the final edition.

This last note was echoed by nineteenth-century liberal critics. However, they were convinced that Moses had not written any of the Pentateuch and seriously doubted that he was actively associated with more than a small fraction of the material. Rather, unknown authors were responsible for J and E, perhaps D's priest and P's Ezra, as well as the final revision, throughout which he instilled his peculiar legalistic and priestly concerns into earlier writings.

Critiques of the Old Testament on this subject were later shared. At one end of the spectrum was W. F. Albright, who, while denying authorship of the mosaic as such, asserted that most of the Pentateuchal material goes back to Moses because of its origin. On the other hand, the German scholar Martin Noth made the Pentateuchal traditions the work of the twelve tribes of Canaan and denied that a man named Moses ever led the Hebrew people or had anything to do with their traditions. Between these extremes there is an almost infinite variety of critical opinions.

Conservative scholars generally refuse to abandon the traditional view. It is clear that the plain sense of Scripture supports one form of this opinion. While there is no statement in the Pentateuch that Moses wrote the entire five books, there are numerous statements that he wrote parts of them (eg, Numbers 33:2). In confirmation of this, archeology has shown that, unlike Wellhausen, the script was widely known at the time. More revealing than this is the fact that the Pentateuch (according to Genesis, the prologue) clearly intends to record the events and revelations that took place in the years between the Exodus and the Conquest. If so, and Moses recorded itineraries and other information, who should be more responsible for writing these materials than he?

On the other hand, the Bible does not make it an article of faith that Moses wrote every word of the Pentateuch. Numbers provides several instructive examples in this regard. It should be noted that Numbers (like Exodus and Leviticus) refer to Moses in the third person everywhere except in direct quotes. This does not indicate direct writing by Moses. The praise of Moses as the gentlest man on earth (Numbers 12:3) would be quite flagrant if seen from Moses' own mouth (unless it is proven that the passage was handed down to Moses by God, or that it is not specified in nowhere). The reference to the book of the Lord's wars (Numbers 21:14-15) probably indicates that an editor used a slightly later source, giving the location of the camp to a generation not more familiar with the exact area more clearly assigned. Once again, Numbers 32:34-42 seems to date from the colonization period, because an editor's statement about what the Transjordanian tribes eventually did to the lands promised them the action just described (32:1-32 ). These relatively minor matters in no way affect the integrity of the Pentateuch, except by assuming that the editors were not necessarily inspired, an unwarranted conclusion. Mosaic authorship, as taught in the Bible, nowhere requires that every word be his.

v. Purpose.The apparent purpose of compiling the book of Numbers was to record the early impact of the COVENANT on the life of Israel. Changes and adjustments to the structure of the terms of the agreement are reported. More importantly, Israel's response to these provisions will be recorded. Themes of trust and obedience are prominent, and their close relationship to God's blessing or cursing is repeatedly illustrated.

VI. Text.Like most of the rest of the Pentateuch, the Numbers text seems to have been remarkably stable. The variants in and in the LXX are generally minor and, following established principles of textual criticism, generally indicate that the TM is the better text. The Samaritan Review is characteristically expansive, drawing parallels to Deuteronomy wherever possible. Likewise, the variants in the LXX are generally longer than in the MT.

Parts of one of the Qumran number scrolls show a very interesting textual character. This text seems to find a middle ground between the Samaritan recension and the text that normally follows the Samaritan text, shows similar expansionist tendencies, and often agrees with minor Samaritan deviations from the MT. On the other hand, where the MT and the Samaritan revision agree that this scroll generally follows, Frank Cross argues that this type of text is the normal Palestinian text during the 5th to 2nd centuries BCE. and that the additions are the result of constant rabbinic revision. On the other hand, the TM was preserved in Babylonia in a much more conservative priestly climate, and only in the 2nd and 1st centuries BC. reintroduced to Palestine. See more TEXT AND MANUSCRIPTS (AT).

VIII. Especial problems

AND. Census Counting.For many years it was recognized that a force of about 600,000 men of war (Numbers 1:46; 26:51) indicates a total community of between two and five million people. While not impossible a priori, this literal interpretation is challenged by several factors. The great armies of this period (for example, Egypt and Assyria) numbered only in the tens of thousands. In fact, Joshua's army appears to have numbered only about forty thousand (Joshua 4:13 possibly referring only to the number of Reuben, Gad, and half the tribe of Manasseh, forty thousand as a total seems to be given in 8:3). 11-12). And yesnothe warriors went with him, as is expressly stated, and he did not choose more than thirty-five thousand, leaving 555,000 men as spectators, which seems highly improbable. It was noted how difficult it is to feed several million people in the Sinai desert. Furthermore, archaeological research indicates that the total population of Canaan at the time was just under three million, making it difficult to understand how the Canaanites were able to limit the Hebrew conquest to the central highlands.

Neither of these arguments is insurmountable (for a full defense see T. Whitelaw inIS TO BE[1929], 4:2166-67). However, they are all problematic and various alternative proposals have been made. rk harrison(Introduction for a alternative Testament[1970], 633) suggests that the large numbers had a fixed symbolism that is now unknown to us. Other suggestions have to do with the meaning of the Hebrew wordH547,"thousand" (see NUMBER II.B). The termh477,"Chief" uses the same consonants and it has been suggested that this last word was intentional. For example, Numbers 1:39 would say 60 chiefs and 2,700 men give instead of 62,700 men. Another suggestion is that the original meaning was not "thousand" but "a troop" or "military unit". Based on this consideration, it was only later that the number of men in such a unit was set at one thousand. The army consisted of 600 troops of soldiers. C.J. Humphreys (inTELEVISION48 [1998]: 196-213) goes so far as to argue that each "troop" averaged only ten men and that the total population was only 20,000. Each of these solutions involves numerous problems, so no definitive solution can be claimed. (See more G.E. Mendenhall inJBL77 [1958]: 52-66; G. A. Klingbeil emDOTP,407-9.)

B. Biblical Evaluation Von a Period.It has often been claimed that the prophetic estimate of the times is different from that of the Pentateuch.

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This photo taken from Wadi Rum shows the Ezion Geber route, which gives access to the SE side of Edom. When the Israelites were forced to avoid Edom, they would have chosen this route.

Several passages (eg, Amos 5:25; Hosea 2:15; 9:10; 11:1-4; Jeremiah 2:2-3; 31:2) are cited to show that the prophets regarded this time as idyllic. time when Israel lived in unbroken fellowship with God. In contrast, it is said, the authors of P and those influenced by that school were so impressed with God's dramatic punishment in EXILE that they came to believe that Israel had never faithfully served God. As a result, they forced their interpretation on the Pentateuch.

A study of the prophetic passages quoted shows that the supposed contrast is greatly exaggerated. It is not said that all Israel served God in the wilderness without fail. Rather, the time is viewed from the perspective of the prophets' own apostate times. The point is that Israel, at least in the desert, did not look for other gods. The people responded to Yahweh even though they often disobeyed him. The prophets of his day noted that Israel stopped even responding to God's offers. Several of the references emphasize the powerlessness of Israel and God's care for the nation. A melancholy is expressed that, despite this concern, Israel has completely turned its back on Yahweh.

C. List Von a desert Trip.Attempts to reconstruct the desert journey have largely failed. There are two reasons for this. First, the places mentioned are not easily identifiable cities whose names have remained the same for many centuries. Rather, they were scattered camps that are difficult to identify and may have different names among different groups. Second, Biblical dates are difficult to harmonize.

Numbers 33 suggests four stops on the journey: a (Numbers 33:3-15); Sinai stops (33:16-35); Ezion Gebert (33.36, perhaps when he was thirty-seven years old wandering in this region [cf. 13.26; 20.1]); and Kadesh a (33:36-37). Although this reconstruction agrees with Deut. 1:46 and 2:1 there are at least three difficulties with this. (1) The first is the obvious fact that #33 does not mention camps during the years in the Kadesh region. This silence has led radical critics to deny that there were any ramblings. They affirm that 20:1 picks up the narrative in a few days where 14:45 left off. The Hebrews, defeated in their attempt to enter the land from the south, simply turned around and went back to the east. (2) The second difficulty is the large number of encampments between Sinai and Ezion Geber, while Numbers 11:34 and 12:16 mean only two stops on a more direct route to Kadesh. (3) A third factor is the 14:25 command to leave Kadesh "tomorrow...way to the Red Sea", a move contained in the above interpretation of ch. 33

In view of these difficulties, the following reconstruction can be proposed: Perhaps (Numbers 33:18-19) refers to Wadi Abu Retemat, which lies south of Kadesh. Therefore, Rithmah would have been the camp when the spies were sent (KD,Pentateuch,3:243). If correct, then the seventeen digits in vv. 19-36 refer to the thirty-seven years of wandering. That is, the Hebrews began their stay in Kadesh (13:26; 33:36-37), migrated in the S and E region from there to Ezion Geber (33:20-35), and finally ended up again in Kadesh (20 :36 -37). one; 33:36). Frustrated in their attempt to move to the NE, they turned south again (21:4), entering the N of Ezion Geber, and from there they proceeded to Moab. This reconstruction, not free of difficulties, has the advantage of reconciling most of the biblical data.

VIII. Contents.The Book of Numbers can be described as follows.

•Am Sinai (Numbers 1:1-9:14)

1. Organization of the Camps (1:1—4:49)

2. Special Provisions (5:1-6:27)

3. Concerning the Tabernacle (7:1-8:26)

4. Passover (9:1-14)

Sinai to Kadesh (9:15-14:45)

1. Basics of setting up and breaking camp (9:15–10:10)

2. Departure (10:11-36)

3. Desire for meat (11:1-35)

4. The discontent of Miriam and Aaron (12:1-16)

5. Spies (13:1-33)

6. Response (14:1-45)

• Remain in the desert (15:1–21:35)

1. Commandments (15:1-41)

2. Priestly privileges (16:1-18:32)

• Priestly authority (16:1-35)

• Precedence of priests (17:1–18:7)

• Maintenance of the priests (18:8-32)

3. Purification ritual (19:1-22)

4. Incidents in the desert (20:1–21:35)

• On the plains of Moab (22:1–36:13)

1. Major Events (22:1—32:42)

•Bilam (22:1—24:25)

• Apostasy and Worse (25:1-18)

• Second census (26:1-65)

• Daughters inheritance (27:1-11)

• Appointment of Joshua (27:12-23)

• Regulations on offerings, festivals and vows (28:1–30:17)

• Assault on Midian (31:1-54)

Settlement in Transjordan (32:1-42)

2. Appendices (33:1-36:13)

•Ruta Reiser (33:1-49)

• Commands on the Promised Land (33:50-36:13)

1. Possession (33:50—34:29)

2. Special Cities (35:1-34)

3. Inheritance (36:1-13)

AND. no sinai.The materials in this section complete our knowledge of the eleven-month sojourn of the Hebrews at Sinai. Whether all of these events occurred between the first and twentieth day of the second month of the second year (Numbers 1:1; 10:11) cannot be determined, especially since the themes appear to be grouped thematically rather than chronologically.

On several occasions it has been pointed out that the square camp (Numbers 2:1-34) is an artificial design created by later priests who were unaware of the actual facts. However, recent studies of Egyptian camps during the time of Akhenaten and Ramesses II indicate that the Egyptian armies of that period used the square camp pattern, while the Assyrian armies of later days used a round pattern.

The first verses of Numbers 5 present a beautiful example of the transition from one thematic collection to another. The camp was discussed beforehand. Here, the regulation on leprosy in the field flows seamlessly into a collection of other regulations. Perhaps, like many others in this book, these regulations were given by God in response to specific situations. This may explain their somewhat arbitrary nature and their not being included in the larger legal book of Leviticus.

Of particular interest is the trial of probation for infidelity (Numbers 5:11-31). This "lie detector" test was a very old practice at the NEC and testifies to the antiquity of the Book of Numbers. The practice seems barbaric to modern people, but examination shows that the biblical application of torture in the context of the ancient world was remarkably restrained and humane.

Note again that the ordinance about blessing the priests (Numbers 6:22-26) is transferred to a section containing related narrative and legislation. This indicates the care with which the material was collected. It's not just a random arrangement, but one that shows order and logic.

B. sinai for You fall.Almost all commentators connect the narratives of PILLARS OF FIRE AND PILLARS OF CLOUD and the sounding of the trumpet (Numbers 9:15-10:10) to the first section of the book. This is imperative as what follows speaks so clearly about the match. The passage about the pillar and the trumpets, on the other hand, has nothing to do with the camp, but everything to do with the journey. Overall it provides a transition from camping and an introduction to hiking.

This passage is notable for its constant record of mistrust and disobedience on the part of the people. All segments are included. The entire town was involved in the desire to eat (Numbers 11) and again in the refusal to enter the land (and vice versa, trying to enter after being turned away, ch. 14). and became involved in it (ch. 12), as were the tribal chiefs (ch. 13). Chapter 14 with the primary disobedience and the major punishment is the turning point of the book.

C. desert Visit.At first glance, Numbers 15, with its many commandments and precepts, seems a disappointment after the drama and tragedy of ch. 14. Perhaps a combination of reasons explains the presence of this material at this point. First, a narrative role probably ended up in ch. 14, leaving room for inserts. Second, while the current generation has been denied the land, the next generation has been promised it. This land decree served to seal that promise. Third, it was the breach of this kind of commandment that brought Israel to this unhappy place. It must not happen again.

Numbers 16-18, though apparently different, all deal with the life of the priesthood and its significance and value in the Hebrew nation. However, contrary to Wright's suggestion, ch. 19 with its regulations for cleaning impurities acquired by association

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An aerial view of the Zin desert. The Israelites lived in this desert for 38 years.

with the dead, does not seem to fit into this priestly theme. It may have been included here because it begins with an order to the priests.

The reader of Numbers is often surprised at how little is said about the thirty-seven years in the wilderness. While numbers 20 and 21 are admitted to contain events scattered throughout the period, we know very little. On the other hand, if, as the Scriptures seem to show, all the events mentioned in these chapters took place during the last year of the Moab road trip, we know next to nothing. It may be that the older generation, having committed the final apostasy, no longer cares about the implementation of the covenant.

D. them a levels Von Moab.The fascinating story of (Numbers 22-24) has been the subject of a number of studies by William F. Albright (eg, "The Oracles of Balaam", JBL 63 [1944]: 207-33). He suggests that while the rest of the Numeri language represents the updating and modernization of a later era, the poetic sections of this account date from the 13th century. This is one more confirmation of the authenticity of the book's sources.

After the Apostasy (#25), virtually the rest of the book deals with the conquest. A second military census is carried out. Various questions about land allocation and inheritance will be answered. The new commander is appointed. The last threat from a rear enemy (the Midianites) is removed, and the Promised Land is given to the two and a half tribes. Unlike the previous generation, whose disobedience became more pronounced as they neared their goal, this group has an aura of faith and intent (as recorded in Joshua) to open the gate of the land for them.

IX. Theology.A comparison of Numbers with examples from modern critical historiography will reveal a crucial difference between the two. While modern history primarily seeks to give a full account of what happened and explain why it happened from a human point of view, the Book of Numbers seeks to convey a point of view about the nature of the Creator and his creation. This is not to say that Numbers does not accurately reflect the historical events it records. In fact, since God reveals himself in history, there is every reason to believe that the Hebrews would strive to cover historical events as accurately as possible in order to get to know God better. The difference is that Numbers does not record all events, only those that best convey the truths the book tries to teach. It is a selective history in which theological truth is the selection criteria.

The theology of the book revolves around the making of the COVENANT between God and Israel. In the second half of Exodus and most of Leviticus, the terms of the covenant are detailed. In exchange for protection and blessings and a new land, the people agree to serve God alone, without idolatry. However, when the federal government was established, there was a gap between them.

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The book of Numbers traces the journeys of the Israelites from Mount Sinai to the plains of Moab.

The race and reality became clear. The operating principle of a covenant is trust, but it is clear that the Israelites, especially the first generation, found trust almost impossible. The extreme sinfulness of men and women is taught in this book as clearly as in any other Scripture. Sinners do not incline towards God and goodness. Instead, they remain proud, selfish, and fearful of all evidence of God's presence (the tabernacle) and power (various deliverances).

In contrast, God's faithfulness is clearly presented in the book (see The covenant was repeated and eventually broken in such a way that the people would not even allow God to keep his promise to them. They would have been more than justified in forsaking or abandon them. them). even to destroy, as he threatened. It took a fervent intercessory prayer from Moses to obtain from God the continuation of the covenant. He did not cancel it, although the actions of the people had chosen it. His purpose to do good to and through that nation, because the world would not be defeated.

The wrath of God, as found in Numbers 14, is offensive to many people and is often called "sub-Christian." But it shows the personal nature of God and expresses the dynamic and passionate nature of biblical faith. Indifferent faith is an abomination in the Bible. This divine "explosion" is much more understandable and acceptable for the fiery temperament of the Mediterranean than for the more rigid and inhibited opinions of the peoples of northern Europe.

Another truth that this book teaches is the HOLINESS of God. God is indescribably holy. The contrast is not between infinite and finite; on the contrary, it is about ethical purity, as the entire law shows. In this sense, there is a gulf between God and the sinner that only the person who seeks to save him can bridge (for example, the unclean cannot exist in the presence of the clean. Numerous object lessons are used to explain to people who teach Hebrew this truth: The minute distinctions between clean and unclean objects, the safeguards surrounding the tabernacle and its ministry, the mass of concrete laws are all efforts to show that there is something in the spiritual and moral realm that corrupts and separates, and that is that it purifies and unites God in his grace created and made possible access to his holy presence.

Christians can benefit greatly from studying this book. You will find in it valuable correctives for over-familiarity with Almighty God. You will gain a new appreciation of the dimensions of the gap that God's grace filled in Jesus Christ. They become more sensitive to their own great professions and lack confidence. You will rejoice in the steadfastness of God's purpose to bless those who let him do it, even in the smallest way. They are empowered to believe in God for deliverance from situations beyond their control. They are encouraged to pass from the ups and downs of a "deserted" existence to that Christian rest that is the inheritance of all believers, if they have it.

(Significant comments include G. B. Gray,AND Critical mi exegetical commentary a counting,IStGH [1903]; M.Noth,Counting: AND commentary[1968]; PJ Buddcounting,WBC 5 [1984]; RK Harrison,counting[1990]; J. Milgrom,Counting: Die Traditional hebrew Text com a nuevo JPS Translation[1990]; T. R. Ashley,Die tripe Von counting,NICOT [1993]; EW Davies,counting,NCBC [1995]; JW Wevers,Comments a a Greek Text Von counting[1998]; RD Cole,counting,NAC 3B [2000]; BA Levine,counting, 2Bde., AB 4 y 4A [1993-2000]; LR Bailey,Leviticus Numbers[2005].

(See also E.J. Young,Introduction for a alternative Testament,Revolution. edition [1960], 89-98; g.w. Coats,Rebellion no a desert[1968]; mr douglas,No a Desert: Die To teach Von pollution no a tripe Von counting[1993]; J. Van Seters,Die life Von Moisés: Die javista And yes historian no exodus numbers[1994]; J.K. Hoffmeier,alternative Israel no sinai: Die Test Pro a authenticity Von a desert tradition[2005]; R. P. Knierim y G. W. Coats,counting,FOTL 4 [2005]; and the bibliography compiled by W. E. Mills,counting[2001].) J.N.

Fromnoo-mee'nee-uhs (NrChapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (218), "New Moon"). Numenius, son of a certain Antiochus (not one of the rulers), was a Jewish officer sent to Rome on special missions by Jonathan and Simon Jonathan, and, after his victory over the higher commanders, delivered an embassy consisting of Numenius and Antipater ( son of Jason) to Rome "to strengthen and renew friendship with them" (1 Macc. 12:1). The Romans responded positively and urged others to do the same. The Spartans also responded positively to a letter from Jonathan (12:5-23).

Simon succeeded his brother Jonathan after his capture and defeat by the cunning Simon. Simon's victories and conquests were applauded by both Romans and Spartans. Shortly before dying in 140 a. he was declared "Leader and High Priest forever." (1 Macc. 14:41) sent Simon Numenius with a large golden shield on a second mission to Rome "to confirm the alliance with the Romans" (14:24). Numenius returned from Rome with letters to all the neighboring kings and countries, declaring the sovereignty of the Jewish people and the integrity of their territory. A copy of this letter is recorded (15:16-21). 13.5.8) alludes to the event, and in his account of a slightly modified version of the letter mentions Numenius, but incorrectly dates the episode to the time of Hyrcanus II (76-67 BC; see II.E). Numenius's success in these missions would indicate that he was a capable diplomat, successfully representing the Jewish cause in Rome.


It's not? (carta)now (ofChapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (219)[attested in the Bible only as a personal name], "fish"). The fourteenth letter of the Hebrew ALPHABET (Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (220)), with a numerical value of fifty. It is named after the shape of the letter, which in its earliest form was thought to represent a stylized image of a fish; however, it is more likely that the letter originally represented a snake (not called in Ethiopianyou do notbut moreNahas,"serpent" = Heb.nāḥāš H5729).Its sound corresponds to that of English.

It's not? (Persona)no (Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (221)H5673[VariantChapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (222)] 1 Chronicles 7:27 only], "fish"; but LXX Nαυη, reflecting Heb.Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (223)h5659,"pasture, place of residence"). KJV also Non (1 Chr. 7:27). The father of (Hosea, Yeshua), and therefore an Ephraimite (Ex 33:11; Num 11:28; 13:8; et al.). Nothing more is said about him.

Nunc launchingmidday. The title given to the prayer (Luke 2:29-32), derives from the first line of the Latin "Nunc dimittis ser-vum tuum, Domine" ("Now, O Lord, let your servant go"). The poem explains that God's promises prophesied in his (1:69-79) have been fulfilled "now." The description of Jesus as "a light of revelation to the Gentiles and of glory to your people Israel" (2:32) is a clear allusion to Isaiah's prophecies about the DER (cf. esp. Isa. 42:6; 46 :13). ; 49:6). (See more S. Farris,Die hymns Von Lucas childhood Stories: are Origen, sense mi sense[1985], 143-50.)

Nurse.As described in the OT, a nurse (Heb.the dummy H4787)she was a woman who nursed a very young child or helped raise the children. The daughter readily followed the suggestion to find a Hebrew wife to care for the child's needs (Exodus 2:7; Conv.OwnH3567 hypophilic, "mama, mama"). she was taking care of her young grandson and therefore fell into the second category (Ruth 4:16 NRSV; ptc.H587).

There is evidence that even after the child grew up, the nanny occupied an important place in the family. When she decided to leave her own family and marry a servant, "they sent her sister Rebekah with her nurse" (Genesis 24:59). When this nurse died, it was an event important enough to be recorded in Scripture, which states that the place where she died was called "the weeping oak" (35:8).

Just as this kind of nurse cared for the needs of a physical child, God and His chosen ones were like nurses for those who were spiritual children. he spoke prophetically of the voice of the Lord over his people: "Kings shall be your foster fathers / And their queens your nurses" (Isaiah 49:23). when he addresses the Christians in Thessalonica about the leadership of his and other apostles, he says, "We were kind to you, like a nurse tenderly caring for her own children" (1 Cor.trophos g5577,translated "mother" by NIV, "nursing mother" by TNIV).


murmur.Any of various dried fruits that have a hard, detachable shell and an inner core. In Gen 43:11 there is a description of the gift that Israel sent to the governor, without knowing that she was his son, including this giftBoth(plboṭnā H1063),probably a reference to pistachios

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Green almonds grow on a tree in Israel.

(pistachios Vera),commonly calledbatamin Arabic (cf. the place name Other suggestions includePAG. terebinto Palestine (FFB,165;HOLA,1:121) miPAG. Primavera Atlantic (ABD,2:808, sv. "Flora"). This dried fruit reaches 30 meters in height and has velvety leaves that later become quite smooth. It grows in the rocky areas of Palestine and Syria. The edible core is small and greenish-yellow in color. It is sweet on the palate. It is usually eaten raw, but it can be fried, salted and seasoned.

However, it could be argued that the nuts mentioned in this passage were ALMONDS.common),which were probably common in Palestine, but were not cultivated in Egypt at the time. In the Sinai desert, the Israelites decorated golden lampstands with patterns of almonds (Exodus 25:33-36). This shows that they knew them when they were in Egypt, and it is possible that Pharaoh gave them instructions on how to plant almond trees after seeing the delicious gift they sent to Joseph. Even today in Britain the clear crystal drops used in chandeliers are sometimes called "almonds". The garden nuts described in Cant. 6:11 (Heb.H100) it isno doubt crazy(Juglanos Real).The trees grow over 60 meters tall. The foliage is lightly scented and the tree provides good shade. Nuts are very tasty (cf.ffb192-93). See also FLORA (inAnacardiaceaemi


Whatnoo'zee. A city founded in the second millennium BC. (The name is always written in cuneiform in the genitive formany daybut probably the name wasnu-zu.)Nuzi's remains were interred at the Yorghan Tepe mound about 9 miles to the NE. W of modern cityKirkut no Irak. ESit was excavated in 1925-31 by the American Schools of Oriental Research in conjunction with the Harvard University Museum. Nuzi's importance to the Bible Student stems from the fact that the 4,000 clay tablets found there probably give a fuller picture of the life of each citizen than can be obtained from any other city in the ANE, except possibly . In Mari, most of the tablets deal mainly with the royal family and their political activities, while in Nuzi records of the lives and activities of hundreds of ordinary citizens have been found.

More important to the Bible student is the fact that the customs attested to on these tablets bear in many places a striking resemblance to those described in the book of . Therefore, the Nuzi material is valuable in confirming the accuracy of Genesis and also in providing a better understanding of its meaning. This article will skip over the many references to features of life that were likely common in most of the NAE at the time, but will point out a few that are valuable in shedding particular light on the book of Genesis.

UE. Connection com they will.Abram lived in Haran, in northern Mesopotamia, for many years before going to sea. Many of his relatives stayed in this city. he was taken there to be married, then returned to his uncle's house in Haran and spent many years there. Although Nuzi is far to the east of Haran, both cities were part of the region, which is reflected in the activities of the patriarchs at a slightly earlier period during the 2nd millennium BC.

II. Die sense Von written Documents.There was a time when it was believed that writing could not be written, thinking that WRITING had not yet been invented in its day. Although there is now ample evidence to the contrary from various sources (eg see, it is of particular interest to note that in Nuzi, in this early period, written documents were extremely important and many of these were produced.

third Adoption.Dozens of adoption pills were found at Nuzi's. Israelite law, so detailed on many matters, contains no precepts for this, and the history of the Hebrews in post-conquest Palestine, as recorded in the OT, contains no evidence of such a practice. But in Nuzi it was common for a man, if he had no children, to adopt someone named after him and inherit his property. This seems to be reflected in Abraham's statement before Isaac was born that if the Lord did not give him a son, Damascus would be his heir (Genesis 15:2).

4. teraphim, o domestic Of the.The TERAPHIM incident (Gen. 31:17-35) was extremely puzzling prior to the discovery of the Nuzi documents. When Jacob decided to leave his uncle Laban, he stole Laban's teraphim. Laban was concerned, not only because his daughters and son-in-law had left without warning, nor because of the great possessions they had taken, but above all because of the loss of his household gods.

Jacob, with his numerous flocks and sheep, must have had a considerable number of herdsmen, and would have required considerable force to overcome what resistance he was able to offer. Laban pursued Jacob for three days, taking with him so many followers that Jacob was startled when he approached. So the search for Jacob was a very expensive endeavor for Laban. In the Middle Ages, students wondered why Laban had gotten into so much trouble and trouble because of these household gods. It has been suggested that the teraphim could have been made of gold, but even if they were, their intrinsic value would hardly have been enough to pay for Laban's expedition: they were so small that Rachel could have hidden them in the saddle basket she kept. . . she in her tent was sitting. Although her father searched the store thoroughly, he never suspected her presence. The mystery was further intensified when he realized that Jacob was extremely shocked by the idea that he might have stolen the teraphim. When Laban could not find her, Jacob bitterly rebuked him for his suspicions (Genesis 31:36-42).

Before the discovery of the Nuzi documents, the whole situation was unclear (and may have been during the time of the Kingdom of Israel, when critics say history was being written). The Nuzi Tablets show that, in accordance with Hurrian custom in this early period, if a man wished to name a son-in-law as his chief heir, he gave her the gods of his house. After the man's death, court appearances with the household gods would be accepted as proof of such readiness. Rachel tried to secure all of Laban's property for her husband, and Jacob was justifiably incensed at being accused of pulling such a deceitful trick. In the light of these facts, the whole incident becomes understandable, and it becomes clear why Laban, still suspicious, wanted a cairn erected and Jacob swore that he would not cross that boundary to harm him (Gen 31:44 - 53, especially v. 52). The Nuzi Tablets make it clear that a large part of Laban's reason for this was his desire that the rest of his wealth go to his own sons when he dies and that Jacob not give it to him. remove. It is worth noting that Jacob later demanded that all foreign gods be buried in the hands of his people (35:2-4), and that Jacob never tried to abuse these teraphim.

v. fraternity.It seems strange to today's reader that Abraham said that this was his sister instead of saying what was more important to Pharaoh that she was his wife (Genesis 12:11-20). Even stranger is that he should have repeated this act in the land of

Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (225)


Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (226)

Domestic idol representing the Sumerian deity Hendursag (from Ur, 1750 BC). Some texts discovered in Nuzi suggest that Rachel stole the gods from her father's house (Teraphim, Gen 31:19) to secure her inheritance rights.

(20:1-18), and perhaps even more so because Isaac must have followed his example later (26:6-16). It has been suggested that these puzzling incidents may shed light on the discovery at Nuzi, as many legal treatises show that a position called "sisterhood" was considered even more important there than that of wife, thus a woman was sometimes substituted. . a special act elevated to that superior position. Since this was common in the area where Abraham spent many years, it is not out of the question that Abraham and Isaac felt that by calling them sisters they were giving their wives a more important and secure position.

Since such a custom was apparently unknown to Pharaoh or Abimelech, an unfortunate situation arose. However, although these two rulers accused the patriarchs of misrepresentation, there is no evidence in Scripture that Abraham and Isaac felt guilty or that God condemned them for their words. God punishes Pharaoh and Abimelech for his actions, but as far as we know, he did not correct Abraham. Therefore, it cannot be ruled out that it is more a matter of misunderstanding than incorrect information. From this point of view, given the Nuzi documents, the incident is quite understandable. In that case, it is hard to imagine that the story could have its origin in the time of the Kingdom of Israel, when this custom was totally unknown. (For another perspective, see B. Eichler, "Another Look at the Nuzi Sistership Contracts," inRehearsal a a alternative Proximity West no memory Von j. j. finkelstein,edition M. by J. Ellis [1977], 45-59.)

VI. Agar.A similar situation exists with events that have to do with and . It may seem strange that Sarah asked Abraham to impregnate his servant Hagar so that she could bear Sarah a son (Genesis 16:2). Again, the Nuzi documents show that what happened was in accordance with Harran custom. In Hurrian society, where the child was so important, it was customary for a woman, if she did not have a child, to provide her husband with a slave for this purpose.

Before the discoveries at Nuzi, some light was thrown on this incident by rather similar provisions in their code, discovered in 1901. However, this did not completely solve the problem, since in this code (§144) only expressly given a priestess. this right, and she has no right to claim the concubine's children for herself.

VIII. Die domestic worker Von Meal mi Rebeca.According to many critical scholars of an earlier generation, the statements in Genesis 29:24 and 29 that Laban gave each of his daughters a designated maidservant were clearly later interpolations of the P-document and are not consistent with the rest of the story. that was assigned to a previous document. However, the Nuzi Tablets indicate that in Jacob's time in that civilization it was a normal part of a marriage contract for the father-in-law of the bride to provide a maiden, whose name was regularly mentioned in these documents.

VIII. Die Habiru.The Nuzi tablets are also important because of the ongoing debate over the origin of the term.hebrew(See The Book of Genesis refers to Abraham as "the Hebrew" (Genesis 14:13) and tells the Egyptians that he was stolen from "the land of the Hebrews" (40:15). These incidents make it seem unlikely. that the term originally meant simply a descendant of Jacob or even a descendant of Abraham Nuzi is only one of several sources in the ANE where ancient documents refer to a supposed people who were apparently landless immigrants who sometimes penetrated enough to solve the problem, but they can provide an important link in your investigation.

Others places Von Contact.Because the contracts, wills, memoranda, and other materials in the Nuzi documents present a diverse and comprehensive picture of many stages of life, scholars point to more similarities between their customs or laws and those of Genesis. Some of these represent traits common to other parts of the ANE civilization. Others apply equally to later periods of Biblical history. In this article, an attempt has been made to limit the discussion mainly to issues of the patriarchal period, which can therefore be a strong support for the idea that the Genesis narrative is true and also that it became a writing in a specific time, before the Hurrian customs and laws had disappeared with the advance of the Assyrian conquerors.

(See more E. Chiera and E. A. Speiser, "A new factor in the history of the ancient Near East", in AASOR 6 [1926]: 75-92;Together Expedition com a Irak museum no Nuzi,6 Bde. [1927-39]; RFS Starr,What: report a a excavations no Yorghan tepe proximity Kirkuk, Irak,2 volumes [1937-39]; C. H. Gordon, "Biblical Customs and the Nuzi Tablets",licensed in letters3 [1940]: 1-12; I. J. Gelb, P. M. Purves y A. A. MacRae,What personally Names[1943]; F. R. Steele,What TRUE Express minutes[1943]; B.Eichler,contract no What: Die personally Tidenneuta contract mi That is Mesopotamia analogous[1973]; E. R. Lacheman and MP Maidman,Together Expedition com a Irak museum no What VII: Of others Text[1989]; DI Owen y G. Wilhelm,What no Seventy-five[1999]; deputy maid,Together Expedition com a Irak museum no What VII: Die remaining Haupt Text no a oriental Institute Von a YOU. Von chicago[2003];abd,4:1156–62;Die oxford encyclopedia Von archeology no a Proximity Ost,edition EM Meyers [1997], 4:171-75.)


a nymphnim'fuh (NChapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (227)g3809,"Bride, young woman, nymph"; possibly mask.Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (228), short form ofChapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (229)"Gift of the Nymphs"). KJV nymphs. A Christian woman in whose home believers met and sent greetings (Colossians 4:15). She apparently lived there, though some have argued that the language is ambiguous and that her home may have been Nympha, or Nympha may have been a wealthy woman, possibly a widow. Many have concluded that she was not only the host of a Christian gathering, but also a local church leader (cf. J.D.G. Dunn,Die letters for a kolosser mi for Philemon: AND commentary a a Greek Text,NIGTC [1996], 284-85).

However, it is not certain if it is a man or a woman. The accusative form that appears in the text can be emphasized as feminine (nChapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (230)Chapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (231)) or as a man (NChapter 7: N - The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible Volume 4: Revised Color Edition (232)). In context, the personal pronoun that refers to this person is in the masculine singular.(Auto,"to be") according to the majority, but and several other witnesses have the feminine singular(for,"she"), which is the reading adopted and generally preferred by . and some other witnesses have the pluralherbs,"she", which can be a secondary reading under the influence ofadelphosat the beginning of the verse. However, J. B. Light-foot preferred the plural.(S t. Pablo letters for a kolosser mi for Philemon[1879], 242-43) on the grounds that it is the most difficult reading in this context (as you explain"you guyshouse”?) and this was the normal (sotic) form of the female nameNymph(but see J.H. Moulton,AND grammar Von nuevo Testament Greek. vol. UE: prolgeomena,3ra ed. [1908], 48).

(Video) Who Are the People Clothed with White Robes in Revelation 7?

nymphsnim'fuhs. KJV form of


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