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Last updated: October 2022

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For qualifying rounds: Regionalism Concept, State Reorganization Act, Northeast Insurgency, Secession, Secession, J&K Reorganization Act, Bodoland, Regionalization and Nationalism

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To the web: Regional Movements in India, Causes and Effects of Regionalism, Regionalism and Cultural Assertion

What is regionalization?

  • regionalismThis isexpression of a shared sense of identity and purposein a specific geographical area, united by a unique language, culture, etc.
    • Wpositivesens, toit encourages people to develop a sense of brotherhoodand unity, which aims to protect the interests of a particular region and promote the prosperity and development of the state and its people.
    • wnegativereason impliesexcessive attachment to your areawhich isa major threat to the country's unity and integrity.
  • Generally in the Indian context, the term "regionalism" has been used in a negative sense.

What is the history of regional movements in India?

  • Origins during the colonial period:
    • The roots of regional consciousness in India can be found in colonial politics,different attitudes and treatment than the Britishvis-à-vis the princely states and the presidency, regionalist tendencies developed among themselves.
    • Britishexploitative economic policycompletely neglected some areas, gives wayeconomic inequalities and regional inequalities.
  • Movements in South India:
    • The history of regional movements in India goes back1940Dravidian movementorNon-Brahmin MovementTobegan in present day Tamil Nadu.
      • Later, the movement resulted in the so-calleddemand for a separate and independent Tamil state.
    • This triggered a demand for a separate state iMandareal.
      • wIn the 1950s and 1960s, India witnessed massive (and violent) mobilizationfor the requirements for statistics.
      • Poti Sri Ramululed the rebellionseparate state of Andhrain 1954. His eventual death triggered a wave of political regionalism in India.
  • Establishment of the state's reorganization committee:
    • Its creation was led by rebellions for separate states across IndiaStates Reorganization Committee (carried out byFaisal Ali).
      • Thehe recommended the reorganization of the Indian states along linguistic lines, That isstrengthening of regional trends.
    • With the passage of the States Reorganization Act in 1956, language states became a reality.
  • Rebellion in Northeast India:
    • Tribal uprisings in the 1970s and 1980sdivision and state formation in the northeastern regionIndia escalated and the EU government passedNortheastern States Reorganization Act af 1971
      • He declared UT Manipur and Tripura and Meghalaya sub-states as states.
      • Mizoram and Arunachal Pradesh (then tribal areas) became union territories and were later declared states in 1986.
  • Big changes in the 21st centuryStAlder:The 2000s saw strong movements to create separate states due to the growing sense of regional deprivation.
    • This led to the creation of three new states –Chhattisgarh af Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand fra BiharIUttarakhand on Uttar Pradesh.
    • w 2014 rStan Telanganywas formed from the Andhra Pradesh branch.


  • Recently, the state of Jammu and Kashmir, but not on a linguistic basisit is divided into two union territories - J&K and LadakhByJammu and Kashmir Reorganization Act 2019
  • India currently has28 states and 8 UTs.
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What types of regional movements have emerged in India?

  • secession:It is a form of regionalismincludes militant and fundamentalist groups advocating secession from Indiabecause of nationality or other factors.
    • written by Isaac MuivahaNagaland National Socialist Council (NSCN-IM), Islamic Fundamentalist Groups in J&K,Asom United Liberation Front (ULFA)there are examples of this in Assamthe extreme dimension of regionalism.
  • Separation: This is required forseparate state of the Indian Union.
    • Many times, linguistically orethnic minorities in states uniteIstand together against the majoritycommunity in this state.
      • The insurgency in Uttarakhand, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh and Telangana are examples of separatism.
    • Other similar requests that have appeared in the news include:
      • Creation of BodolandDoBodo speakers in Assam
      • Gorkhalandfor the Gorkha people (Nepal) in West Bengal
      • INStan Bundelkhand(covering part of Madhya Pradesh and part of Uttar Pradesh) to promote the development of the region.
  • Full citizenship requirements:The Union Territories have made demands such asNCT i Delhi.
    • Most of these requests have already been accepted. in 1971Himachal Pradesh was given full statehoodand then Manipur, Tripura, Mizoram,Arunachal PradeshISikkim was given full statehood.
  • Autonomy requirements:Since the 1960s, with the emergence of regional parties, the need for state autonomy has grown stronger due tocentral political intervention.
    • Many parties in states like Tamil Nadu, Punjab, Andhra Pradesh and West Bengal are constantly demandinggreater distribution of power between the states.
  • Demand for regional autonomy in the state: In some states there were people belonging to different regionsrequire recognition of their regional identity.
    • The genesis of such theorems lies inregional disparities as a result of ineffective planning.
    • For example, they were in the old J&K stateLadakh's claim for regional status.

What are the reasons for the growing regionalism?

  • Historical and geographical isolation, indoor-outdoor complexwhich feeds nativism and the ideology of the earth
  • Abnormal development, constant neglectarea irather internal colonialismBeing rich in natural resources, some areas remain economically underdeveloped.
  • Wrong top-down approachfor the growth or survival of one region at the expense of another.
  • Impressive ideologywhich may conflict with the ideology held by the inhabitants of a given entity for a long time.
  • Linguistic researchIexpression of ethnicitythey have long been a powerful base for regionalism.

What effects can regionalism have on Indian politics?

  • Positive consequences:
    • The effect of positive regionalism is e.gThe emergence of regional partieswhich isthis is advantageous from a democratic point of view.
      • People in a region are more likely to believe in a person from their region or in a party that is limited to their regionprevent monopolization by one political party.
      • alsoThe son of the earth is more likely to empathize with the nativesand treat their problems as your own.
    • Often regionalismdraw the attention of political decision-makers to underlying regional issues. It helps solve problems that are too big for one government unit to handle alone.
      • INA wider peripheral lens enables a better design- Better transit, more efficient infrastructure and better delivery of goods and services.
    • Positive regionalismfosters a sense of pride in being connected to one's roots and culture.
      • It has been observed that they often have peripheral movementscontributed to the flourishing of art and culture in many neglected areasincrease their exposure through local pressure.
  • Negative effects:
    • Regional movementsoften leads to violent riots, disrupts law and orderinegative effects on the economystate and nation.
      • Regionalism canbecome a shield for militancy andextremismcreate an internal security threat.
    • Regionalism sometimes undermines the national interestis an obstacle to international diplomacy.
      • West Bengal's political leadership is at odds with the central government on the issueLand Boundary Agreement and Teesta River Water Sharing Treatywith Bangladeshled to increased tensions between the two nations.
    • Local regionalism is a threat to national sovereignty.Regionalization beyond the point can lead to secession,which was ultimately brought about by strong regionalism in the PunjabdevelopmentKhalistan terrorism.
    • Local trends often cause transnational hostility as a secondary effect.
      • There have been casesanti-immigrant sentiment among countries more suitable for workAsTo install Maharashtra.
      • The state's regional leaders have often opposed the employment and residence of non-Maharashtrians in the state.
    • Often regionalismpromotes the politics of the vote bank,and thus weaken national integration.
      • regionalismthreatens the proven structure of "Unity in Diversity",if it is over-promoted.

What is the difference between regionalism and nationalism?

  • NationalismThis is asense of belonging to a nation, a sentiment shared by all citizens of a country, irrespective of their caste, creed, culture, religion or region.
  • The nation is tryingcreate harmony among all citizens by uniting them through the constitutionand national symbols.
  • Ofconnection with the nation is the primary means of identificationfor man and every citizenproud to be its citizen.
  • When people begin to identify more strongly with their region than with the nation, it is argued that nationalism is undermined by a sense of localism.
  • regionalismit only glorifies the heritage of one particular regionand culture.
  • This can lead tocreate more communitieswithin the nation.

Far ahead

  • The ethos of unity in diversity must be maintainedthe pluralistic nature of the Indian nation-state. It is necessary to take into account the many expectations of a diverse population.
    • There is a needincrease the level of the state's social expenditure on education, health and sanitationwhich is the basis for the development of human resources.
  • FormationNITI Aayogthis was a positive step towards strengthening cooperative federalismby encouraging Indian state governments to participate in the economic policy-making process using a bottom-up approach.
    • While the government has taken some steps such as starting centrally sponsored programmes, incentives for the private sector to develop in backward states for inclusive growth, theregreater need for their effective implementation.
  • Showa system of national education that would help people overcome regional feelings and develop an attachment to the nationit can act as a long-term solution to the problem of subnationalism.
    • National unity is not violated if the inhabitants of a given region are genuinely proud of their language and culture.
    • That is why,in principle, regionalism need not be seen as unhealthy or anti-national;unless it adopts a militant, aggressive turn to promote the growth of separatist tendencies.

Previous Year UPSC Civil Services Exam Questions (PYQ)


Q. Do you agree that regionalism in India appears to be a consequence of growing cultural assertiveness? Argument.(2020)

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Q.What is the basis of regionalism? Does the unequal distribution of the benefits of development at the regional level ultimately favor regionalism? Justify your answer.(2020)

Q.The growing sense of regionalism is the main factor creating the need for a separate state. Discuss.(2013)

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Which is the rank 1 IAS coaching in Delhi? ›

Which is the No 1 IAS Coaching in Delhi? Vajirao and Reddy [Vajirao Institute] is the No 1 IAS coaching in Delhi in the terms of Rankings and Reviews.

Which is the No 1 IAS coaching in India? ›

Vajiram & Ravi institute is one of India's most well-known IAS coaching centres. Founded in 1976, this Delhi-based institution has a solid track record of producing highly skilled young civil servants. The faculty of Vajiram and Ravi is made up of seasoned educators.

Which coaching institute has best test series for UPSC? ›

Shankar IAS Academy's prelims test series is widely regarded as the best in the industry for those preparing for the UPSC Civil Services Examination. We consistently delivered top-notch test series for the past several years and the upcoming 2023 edition is no different.

Which IAS test series is best? ›

UPSC Test Series | Best Test Series for UPSC
  • No. 1 Vajiram and Ravi's Test Series. ...
  • No. 2 Unacademy's Test Series. ...
  • No. 3 VisionIAS's Test Series. ...
  • No. 4 InsightsIAS's Test Series. ...
  • No. 5 ClearIAS's Test Series. ...
  • No.6 IASScore's Test Series.
  • No.7 DrishtIAS's Test Series.
  • No. 8 BYJU'S Test Series.


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